Page Header

Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles with the Potential to Control Fungal Contamination in the Male Inflorescences of Palmyra Palm

Suchera Thananimit, Pichayabha Sorsiw, Warapond Wanna, Souwalak Phongpaichit


Fungal contamination of the male inflorescences of palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) is a serious problem during their storage prior being used as the raw material for making the local One-Tambon-One-Product, a cloth holder known as “Nguang Taan Hom” made by the Phutaan Entrepreneurship, Takua Thung District PhangNga Province, Thailand. Morphological and molecular techniques were used to identify the isolated fungi from male palmyra palm inflorescences. Three major strains: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus sclerotiorum were studied for antifungal activities and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was found to range from 13.5–27 mg mL–1. Then, the efficiency of the AgNPs and silver nanoparticles stabilizing by Polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNPs-PVP) on the male palmyra palm inflorescences was studied by constructing a chamber model over a period for 9 weeks. The results showed that the group inoculated with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus sclerotiorum spores developed fungal growth after 4 weeks whereas no fungal growth was observed in the group treated with AgNPs and AgNPs-PVP at 27 μg/ mL until week 7, indicating that dipping with either AgNPs or AgNPs-PVP is able to inhibit the growth of the fungi which cause damage to raw materials and also threaten human health. Therefore, it can effectively extend the storage time of male palmyra inflorescences.


[1] S. Savary, A. Ficke, J.-N. Aubertot, and C. Hollier, “Crop losses due to diseases and their implications for global food production losses and food security,” Food Security, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 519–537, Dec. 2012.

[2] M. Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska, A. Szaniawski, J. Olchowik, and S. Drozdowski, “Effects of copper and silver nanoparticles on growth of selected species of pathogenic and wood-decay fungi in vitro,” Forestry Chronicle, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 109–116, Apr. 2018.

[3] A. Singh and S. M. Prasad, “Nanotechnology and its role in agro-ecosystem: A strategic perspective,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2277–2300, Oct. 2017.

[4] H. Ashraf, T. Anjum, S. Riaz, and S. Naseem, “Microwave-assisted green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using melia azedarach for the management of fusarium wilt in tomato,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 10, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 238.

[5] N. F. Ali and I. S. Abd-Elsalam, “Antimicrobial characteristics of wool fibers treated with chitosan-propolis nano composite and dyed with natural dye extracted from red prickly pear,” International Journal of Agricultural Technology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 223–236, 2020.

[6] W. Pongprayoon, T. Siringam, A. Panya, and S. Roytrakul, “Application of chitosan in plant defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, 2020, Art. no. 3865, doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2020.12.007.

[7] M. Pogribna and G. Hammons, “Epigenetic effects of nanomaterials and nanoparticles,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 19, no. 1, Dec. 2021.

[8] S. AmirAshraf, A. J. Siddiqui, A. E. O. Elkhalifa, M. I. Khan, M. Patel, M. Alreshidi, A. Moin, R. Singh, Mejdi Snoussi, and M. Adnan, “Innovations in nanoscience for the sustainable development of food and agriculture with implications on health and environment,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 768, no. 10, May 2021, Art. no. 144990.

[9] D. Dutta and B. M. Das, “Scope of green nanotechnology towards amalgamation of green chemistry for cleaner environment: A review on synthesis and applications of green nanoparticles,” Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management, vol. 15, May 2021, Art. no. 100418.

[10] M. Vargas-Hernandez, I. Macias-Bobadilla, R. G. Guevara-Gonzalez, E. Rico-Garcia, R. V. Ocampo-Velazquez, L. Avila-Juarez, and I. Torres-Pacheco, “Nanoparticles as potential antivirals in agriculture,” Agriculture (Switzerland), vol. 10, no. 444, pp. 1–18, Oct. 2020.

[11] J. Zhou, N. Krishnan, Y. Jiang, R. H. Fang, and L. Zhang, “Nanotechnology for virus treatment,” Nano Today, vol. 36, Feb. 2021, Art. no. 101031.

[12] L. d. C. Silva, A. A. de Oliveira, D. R. de Souza, K. L. B. Barbosa, K. S. F. E. Silva, M. A. B. C. Júnior, O. B. Rocha, R. M. Lima, T. G. Santos, C. M. de A. Soares, and M. Pereira, “Overview of antifungal drugs against paracoccidioidomycosis: How do we start, where are we, and where are we going?,” Journal of Fungi, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1–21, Dec. 2020.

[13] P. Golinska, D. Rathod, M. Wypij, I. Gupta, M. Skladanowski, P. Paralikar, H. Dahm, and M. Rai, “Mycoendophytes as efficient synthesizers of bionanoparticles: Nanoantimicrobials, mechanism, and cytotoxicity,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 765–778, Aug. 2017.

[14] M. Rai, A. Yadav, and A. Gade, “Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 76–83, Jan. 2009.

[15] J. Liang, J. Wang, S. Li, L. Xu, R. Wang, R. Chen, and Y. Sun, “The size-controllable preparation of chitosan/silver nanoparticle composite microsphere and its antimicrobial performance,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 220, no. 15, pp. 22–29, Sep. 2019.

[16] S. Rahman, L. Rahman, A. T. Khalil, N. Ali, D. Zia, M. Ali, and Z. K. Shinwari, “Endophytemediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biological applications,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 2551–2569, Mar. 2019.

[17] X. Zhao, L. Zhou, M. S. R. Rajoka, L. Yan, C. Jiang, D. Shao, J. Zhu, J. Shi, Q. Huang, H. Yang, and M. Jin, “Fungal silver nanoparticles: Synthesis, application and challenges,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 817–835, Aug. 2018.

[18] A. Ogar, G. Tylko, and K. Turnau, “Antifungal properties of silver nanoparticles against indoor mould growth,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 521–522, pp. 305–314, Jul. 2015.

[19] M. D. C. Sales, H. B. Costa, P. M. B. Fernandes, J. A. Ventura, and D. D. Meira, “Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 26–31, Jan. 2016.

[20] S. W. Kim, J. H. Jung, K. Lamsal, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Min, and Y. S. Lee, “Antifungal effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against various plant pathogenic fungi,” Mycobiology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 53–58, Mar. 2012.

[21] Z.-K. Xia, Q.-H. Ma, S.-Y. Li, D.-Q. Zhang, L. Cong, Y.-L. Tian, and R.-Y. Yang, “The antifungal effect of silver nanoparticles on Trichosporon asahii,” Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 182–188, Apr. 2016.

[22] D. Richard-Molard, L. Lesage, and B. Cahagnier, “Effect of water activity on mold growth and mycotoxin production,” in Properties of Water in Foods: in Relation to Quality and Stability, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 1985, pp. 273–292.

[23] S. Mailafia, G. R. Okoh, H. O. K. Olabode, and R. Osanupin, “Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria,” Veterinary World, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 393–397, Apr. 2017.

[24] R. A. Samson, N. Yilmaz, J. Houbraken, H. Spierenburg, K. A. Seifert, S. W. Peterson, J. Varga, and J. C.Frisvad, “Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium,” Studies in Mycology, vol. 70, pp. 159–183, Sep. 2011.

[25] K. Samerpitak, A. P. M. Duarte, D. Attili-Angelis, F. C. Pagnocca, G. Heinrichs, A. J. M. M. Rijs, A. Alfjorden, A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende, S. B. J. Menken, and G. S. de Hoog, “A new species of the oligotrophic genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae),” Mycological Progress, vol. 14, no. 2, Feb. 2015.

[26] O. Miettinen and M. Rajchenberg, “Obba and Sebipora, new polypore genera related to Cinereomyces and Gelatoporia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota),” Mycological Progress, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 131–147, Feb. 2012.

[27] A. Pongpeerapat, K. Itoh, Y. Tozuka, K. Moribe, T. Oguchi, and K. Yamamoto, “Formation and stability of drug nanoparticles obtained from drug/PVP/SDS ternary ground mixture,” Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 441–447, Jan. 2004.

[28] J. Pulit, M. Banach, R. Szczygłowska, and M. Bryk, “Nanosilver against fungi. Silver nanoparticles as an effective biocidal factor,” Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 795–798, 2013.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2021.07.007


  • There are currently no refbacks.