Page Header

Treatment of Marigold Flower Processing Wastewater Using a Sequential Biological- Electrochemical Process

Lokesh Kumar Akula, Raj Kumar Oruganti, Debraj Bhattacharyya, Kiran Kumar Kurilla


Agriculture is the mainstay of the Indian economy. The agro-based industries produce high volumes of highstrength wastewaters that need to be treated and reused to prevent environmental pollution and water wastage. This study evaluated the performances of a sequential biological-electrochemical process for treating an anaerobically digested effluent of a Marigold flower processing agro-industry. The uniqueness of this wastewater possess a major challenge to its treatment since not many studies have been conducted on this wastewater. The biological treatment was carried out in a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR). The treated water was further polished in a Continuous Bipolar-mode Electrochemical Reactor (ECR) to remove the residual organics. The anaerobically digested effluent Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were 5750 ± 991 mg/L, 980 ± 120 mg/L, 692 ± 60 mg/L, 9.7 ± 1.1 mg/L, and 1144 ± 166 mg/L, respectively. A significant level of treatment was achieved in the SBR. The combined system was able to remove 79% of COD, 85% of DOC, 53% of TN, and almost 100% of TP, TSS, and Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS). Several organic compounds belonging to the category of natural plants compound, pesticide, fungicide, etc. were detected in the raw wastewater. Most of the compounds were almost completely removed by the treatment system. The final effluent was almost colorless and free from suspended solids. However, for reuse, the water needs to be further treated in an advanced oxidation process.


[1] R. Rajagopal, N. M. C. Saady, M. Torrijos, J. V. Thanikal, and Y. T. Hung, “Sustainable agro-food industrial wastewater treatment using high rate anaerobic process,” Water (Switzerland), vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 292–311, 2013, doi: 10.3390/w5010292.

[2] S. K. Pattanayak, State of Indian Agriculture (2015–16). New Delhi, India: Government of India, 2017.
[3] K. Jayathilakan, K. Sultana, K. Radhakrishna, and A. S. Bawa, “Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: A review,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 278– 293, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0290-7.

[4] E. Alayu and Z. Yirgu, “Advanced technologies for the treatment of wastewaters from agroprocessing industries and cogeneration of byproducts: A case of slaughterhouse, dairy and beverage industries,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1581–1596, 2018, doi: 10.1007/ s13762-017-1522-9.

[5] W. Riansa-ngawong, W. Savedboworn, and M. Suwansaard, “Optimization of hydrogen production from pickle bamboo shoot wastewater by rhodopseudomonas palustris TN1,” King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1–8, 2015, doi: 10.14416/j.ijast.2015.06.004.

[6] M. Wang, R. Tsao, S. Zhang, Z. Dong, R. Yang, J. Gong, and Y. Pei, “Antioxidant activity, mutagenicity/anti-mutagenicity, and clastogenicity/ anti-clastogenicity of lutein from marigold flowers,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 1522–1529, 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.fct. 2006.04.005.

[7] A. Tawai, K. Kitsubthawee, C. Panjapornpon, and W. Shao, “Hybrid control scheme for anaerobic digestion in a CSTR-UASB reactor system,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 213–223, 2020, doi: 10.14416/j.asep. 2020.06.004.

[8] H. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Liang, Q. Yang, S. Wang, B. Wang, F. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Cheng, S. Song, and Liping Zhang, “Utilization of marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower fermentation wastewater as a fertilizer and its effect on microbial community structure in maize rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil,” Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 522–531, 2020, doi: 10.1080/ 13102818.2020.1781548.

[9] M. Damaraju, D. Bhattacharyya, T. K. Panda, and K. K. Kurilla, “Marigold wastewater treatment in a lab-scale and a field-scale continuous bipolarmode electrocoagulation system,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 245, p. 118693, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118693.

[10] M. Damaraju, V. K. Gupta, D. Bhattacharyya, T. K. Panda, and K. K. Kurilla, “Improving the performance of a continuous bipolar-mode electrocoagulation (CBME) system, treating a marigold flower processing wastewater, through process modifications,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1–13, 2021, doi: 10.1080/01496395.2020.1725572.

[11] W. Metcalf and C. Eddy, Metcalf and Eddy Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.

[12] P. G. Patil, G. S. Kulkarni, S. S. V Kore, and S. V. S. Kore, “Aerobic sequencing batch reactor for wastewater treatment: A review,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 534–550, 2013.

[13] B. K. Zaied, M. Rashid, M. Nasrullah, A. W. Zularisam, D. Pant, and L. Singh, “A comprehensive review on contaminants removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation process,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 726, p. 138095, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138095.

[14] M. Damaraju, D. Bhattacharyya, T. K. Panda, and K. K. Kurilla, “Downstream processing of palm oil mill effluent in a CBME reactor,” Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000484.

[15] B. M. B. Ensano, L. Borea, V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno, M. D. G. de Luna, and F. C. Ballesteros, “Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by intermittent electrocoagulation,” Water (Switzerland), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 1–15, 2017, doi: 10.3390/w9020085.

[16] B. M. B. Ensano, L. Borea, V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno, M. D. G. de Luna, M. Balakrishnan, and F. C. Ballesteros Jr, “Applicability of the electrocoagulation process in treating real municipal wastewater containing pharmaceutical active compounds,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 361, pp. 367–373, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.093.

[17] J. Heffron, D. R. Ryan, and B. K. Mayer, “Sequential electrocoagulation-electrooxidation for virus mitigation in drinking water,” Water Research, vol. 160, pp. 435–444, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.05.078.

[18] W. Subramonian, T. Y. Wu, and S. Chai, “An application of response surface methodology for optimizing coagulation process of raw industrial effluent using Cassia obtusifolia seed gum together with alum,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 70, pp. 107–115, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop. 2015.02.026.
[19] D. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments. 7th ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2008.

[20] APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 23rd ed., Washington, DC: APHA, 2012.

[21] L. K. Akula, V. B. Gaddam, M. Damaraju, D. Bhattacharyya, and K. K. Kurilla, “Domestic wastewater treatment in a coupled sequential batch reactor-electrochemical reactor process,” Water Environment Research, pp. 1–3, 2020, doi: 10.1002/wer.1488.

[22] C. P. L. Grady, G. T. Daigger, N. G. Love, and C. D. M. Filipe, Biological Wastewater Treatment. 3rd ed., Florida: CRC Press, 2011.

[23] W. Jia , S. Liang, H. H. Ngo, W. Guo, J. Zhang, R. Wang, and Y. Zou, “Effect of phosphorus load on nutrients removal and N2O emission during low-oxygen simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 141, pp. 123–130, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j. biortech.2013.02.095.

[24] G. Harja, I. Nascu, C. Muresan, and I. Nascu, “Improvements in dissolved oxygen control of an activated sludge wastewater treatment process,” Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 2259–2281, 2016, doi: 10.1007/ s00034-016-0282-y.

[25] Y. J. Chan, M. F. Chong, and C. L. Law, “Biological treatment of anaerobically digested palm oil mill ef fl uent (POME) using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR),” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 17381746, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.03.021.

[26] C. W. Fun, M. R. U. Haq, and S. R. M. Kutty, “Treatment of palm oil mill effluent using biological sequencing batch reactor system,” WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, vol. 104, pp. 511–518, 2007, doi: 10.2495/ RM070481.

[27] T. Popple, J. B. Williams, E. May, G. A. Mills, and R. Oliver, “Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol,” Water Research, vol. 88, pp. 83–92, Jan. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j. watres.2015.09.033.

[28] T. H. Bae, S. S. Han, and T. M. Tak, “Membrane sequencing batch reactor system for the treatment of dairy industry wastewater,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 221–231, Oct. 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00063-3.

[29] B. Kayranli and A. Ugurlu, “Effects of temperature and biomass concentration on the performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treating low strength wastewater,” Desalination, vol. 278, no. 1–3, pp. 77–83, Sep. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j. desal.2011.05.011.

[30] M. V. Jadhav and Y. S. Mahajan, “Application of response surface methodology to water/wastewater treatment using Coccinia indica,” Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 52, no. 34–3, pp. 37– 41, 2014, doi: 10.1080/19443994.2013.821043.

[31] M. Kumar, F. I. A. Ponselvan, J. R. Malviya, V. C. Srivastava, and I. D. Mall, “Treatment of bio-digester effluent by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 165, no. 1–3, pp. 345–352, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.041.

[32] T. Shojaeimehr, F. Rahimpour, and M. Ali, “A modeling study by response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) on Cu 2+ adsorption optimization using light expended clay aggregate ( LECA ),” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 870–880, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j. jiec.2013.06.017.

[33] A. R. Makwana and M. M. Ahammed, “Continuous electrocoagulation process for the post-treatment of anaerobically treated municipal wastewater,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 102, pp. 724–733, Jul. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j. psep.2016.06.005.
[34] G. Chen, “Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 11–41, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2003.10.006.

[35] S. Garcia-Segura, M. M. S. G. Eiband, J. V. de Melo, and C. A. Martínez-Huitle, “Electrocoagulation and advanced electrocoagulation processes: A general review about the fundamentals, emerging applications and its association with other technologies,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 801, pp. 267–299, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.07.047.

[36] M. Majlesi, S. M. Mohseny, M. Sardar, S. Golmohammadi, and A. Sheikhmohammadi, “Improvement of aqueous nitrate removal by using continuous electrocoagulation/electroflotation unit with vertical monopolar electrodes,” Sustainable Environment Research, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 287– 290, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.serj.2016.09.002.

[37] N. R. Costa, J. Lourenço, and Z. L. Pereira, “Desirability function approach: A review and performance evaluation in adverse conditions,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 234–244, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j. chemolab.2011.04.004.

[38] M. A. Bezrra, R. Erthal, E. Padua, L. Silveira, and L. Am, “Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry,” Talanta, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 965–977, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.05.019.

[39] K. Gautam, S. Kamsonlian, and S. Kumar, “Removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from wastewater using electrocoagulation: optimization using multivariate approach, economic analysis, and sludge characterization,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 55, no. 18, pp. 3412–3426, 2020, doi: 10.1080/01496395.2019.1677713.

[40] J. Coates, “Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach,” Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, pp. 1–23, 2006, doi: 10.1002/978047 0027318.a5606.

[41] M. Kędzierska-Matysek, A. Matwijczuk, M. Florek, J. Barłowska, A. Wolanciuk, A. Matwijczuk, E. Chruściel, R. Walkowiak, D. Karcz, and B. Gładyszewska, “Application of FTIR spectroscopy for analysis of the quality of honey,” BIO Web of Conferences, vol. 10, p. 02008, 2018, doi: 10.1051/bioconf/20181002008.

[42] Z. B. Gönder, G. Balcıoğlu, I. Vergili, and Y. Kaya, “Electrochemical treatment of carwash wastewater using Fe and Al electrode: Technoeconomic analysis and sludge characterization,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 200, pp. 380–390, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017. 06.005.

[43] J. A. Gomes, P. Daida, M. Kesmez, M. Weir, H. Moreno , J. R. Parga, G. Irwin, H. McWhinney, T. Grady, E. Peterson, and D. L. Cocke, “Arsenic removal by electrocoagulation using combined Al-Fe electrode system and characterization of products,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 220–231, 2007, doi: 10.1016/j. jhazmat.2005.11.108.

[44] M. Kobya, F. Ulu, U. Gebologlu, E. Demirbas, and M. S. Oncel, “Treatment of potable water containing low concentration of arsenic with electrocoagulation: Different connection modes and Fe-Al electrodes,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 283–293, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.seppur.2010.12.018.
[45] Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Pollution Control Acts, Rules and Notification There. Delhi, India: Central Pollution Control Board, 2015.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2021.04.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.