Page Header

The Influence of Fiber Processing and Alkaline Treatment on the Properties of Natural Fiber-reinforced Composites: A Review

Keagisitswe Setswalo, Namoshe Molaletsa, Oluseyi Philip Oladijo, Esther Titilayo Akinlabi, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin


Throughout generations, research on natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRCs) has been growing and yielding promising results. The notion of blending natural fibers with polymers comes from the composite’s suitable properties, not limited to low density, availability at a low price, biodegradability, and environmental friendliness. The quest for high-performing and marketable NFRCs is driving innovation in the synthesis of such materials. A suitable combination of parameters that optimizes the mechanical and functional properties of the composites without increasing the cost of production is desired. The main objective of this review is to evaluate some of the parameters that influence the behavior and properties of NFRCs. The influence of alkaline modification and natural fiber processing parameters, such as particle size, modification concentration, soaking duration, processing temperature, fiber-to-polymer ratio, and adoption of additives, on composites are discussed. This review summarizes some of the work and provides some directions in the search of an all-around performing economic NFRC.


[1] A. K. Mohanty, M. Misra, and G. Hinrichsen, “Biofibres, biodegradable polymers and biocomposites: An overview,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 276, no. 277, pp. 1–24, 2000.

[2] S. H. Mansour, D. E. El-Nashar, and S. L. Abd-El- Messieh, “Effect of chemical treatment of wood flour on the properties of styrene butadiene rubber/ polystyrene composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 102, pp. 5861–5870, 2006.

[3] X. Li, L. G. Tabil, and S. Panigrahi, “Chemical treatment of natural fibre for use in natural fibrereinforced composites: A review,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2007.

[4] M. E. Ali, C. K. Yong, Y. C. Ching, C. H. Chuah, and N. S. Liou, “Effect of single sand double stage chemically treated kenaf fibers on mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol film,” BioResources, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 822–838, 2015.
[5] D. Friedrich and A. Luible, “Investigations on ageing of wood-plastic composites for outdoor applications: A meta-analysis using empiric data derived from diverse weathering trials,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 124, pp. 1142–1152, 2016.

[6] M. Jawaid and S. Siengchin, “Hybrid composites: A versatile materials for future,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 223, 2019, doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2019.09.002.

[7] A. Alireza, “Wood-plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industries!,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, pp. 4661–4667, 2008.

[8] D. M. Krishnudu, D. Sreeramulu, and P. V. Reddy, “Alkali treatment effect: Mechanical, thermal, morphological, and spectroscopy studies on abutilon indicum fiber-reinforced composites,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1775–1784, 2020.

[9] FAO, “Rice market monitor,” Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy, Jul. 2017.
[10] FAO, “Rice market monitor,” Food and Agriculture Organization , Rome, Italy, Oct. 2017.

[11] R. Dungani, M. Karina, Subyakto, A. Sulaeman, D. Hermawan, and A. Hadiyane, “Agricultural waste fibers towards sustainability and advanced utilization: A review,” Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 15, no. 1–2, pp. 42–55, 2016.

[12] N. D. Vu, H. T. Tran, and T. D. Nguyen, “Characterization of polypropylene green composites reinforced by cellulose fibers extracted from rice straw,” International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2018, pp. 1–10, 2018.
[13] S. M. Rangappa, S. Siengchin, and H. N. Dhakal, “Green-composites: Ecofriendly and sustainability,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 183–184, 2020, doi: 10.14416/j. asep.2020.06.001.

[14] O. Faruk, A. K. Bledzki, H. P. Fink, and M. Sain, “Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000–2010,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 37, pp. 1552–1596, 2012.

[15] S. M. K. Thiagamani, S. Krishnasamy, and S. Siengchin, “Challenges of biodegradable polymers: An environmental perspective,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 149, 2019, doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2019.03.002.

[16] V. Tserki, P. Matzinos, S. Kokkou, and C. Panayiotou, “Novel biodegradable composites based on treated lignocellulosic waste flour as filler. Part I. Surface chemical modification and characterization of waste flour,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 965– 974, 2005.

[17] H. M. Rashed, M. A. Islam, and F. B. Rizvi, “Effects of process parameters on tensile strength of jute fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites,” Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 1–6, 2006.

[18] Y. Arnandha, I. Satyarno, A. Awaludin, I. S. Irawati, Y. Prasetya, D. A. Prayitno, D. C. Winata, M. H. Satrio, and A. Amali, “Physical and mechanical properties of WPC board from sengon sawdust and recycled HDPE plastic,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 171, pp. 695–704, 2017.

[19] M. Khalid, S. Ali, L. C. Abdullah, C. T. Ratnam, and S. T. Choong, “Effect of MAPP as coupling agent on the mechanical properties of palm fiber empty fruit bunch and cellulose polypropylene biocomposites,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 79– 84, 2006.

[20] P. Zierdt, T. Theumer, G. Kulkarni, V. Däumlich, J. Klehm, U. Hirsch, and A. Weber, “Sustainable wood-plastic composites from bio-based polyamide 11 and chemically modified beech fibers,” Sustainable Materials and Technologies, vol. 6, pp. 6–14, 2015.

[21] M. Cai, H. Takagi, A. N. Nakagaito, Y. Li, and G. I. N. Waterhouse, “Effect of alkali treatment on interfacial bonding in abaca fiber-reinforced composites,” Composites: Part A, vol. 90, pp. 589–597, 2016.

[22] I. Turku, T. Karki, and A. Puurtinen, “Durability of wood plastic composites manufactured from recycled plastic,” Heliyon, vol. 4, pp. 1–20, 2018.

[23] S. Mishra, M. Misra, S. S. Tripathy, S. K. Nayak, and A. K. Mohanty, “Potentiality of pineapple leaf fibre as reinforcement in palf-polyester composite: Surface modification and mechanical performance,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 321–334, 2001.

[24] H. Kallakas, M. A. Shamim, T. Olutubo, T. Poltimäe, T. M. Süld, A. Krumme, and J. Kers, “Effect of chemical modification of wood flour on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites,” Agronomy Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 639–653, 2015.

[25] G. T. G. Yashas, S. M. Rangappa, P. Jyotishkumar, and S. Suchart, “Natural fibers as sustainable and renewable resource for development of ecofriendly composites: A comprehensive review,” Frontiers in Materials, pp. 1–14, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fmats.2019.00226.
[26] L. Y. Mwaikambo and M. P. Ansell, “The effect of chemical treatment on the properties of hemp, sisal, jute and kapok fibres for composite reinforcement,” in 2nd International Wood and Natural Fibre Composites Symposium, 1999, pp 108–116.

[27] F. Arwinfar, S. K. Hosseinihashemi, A. J. Latibari, A. Lashgari, and N. Ayrilmis, “Mechanical properties, and morphology of wood plastic composites produced with thermally treated beech wood,” BioResources, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1494–1504, 2016.

[28] M. S. S. Godara, “Effect of chemical modification of fiber surface on natural fiber composites: A review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 18, pp. 3428–3434, 2019.

[29] N. F. Jasmi, J. Kasim, N. F. Yusoff, M. C. Hussin, and I. I. Maidin, “Effect of alkali treatment on mechanical and physical properties of oil palm frondpolypropylene matrix,” International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 150–154, 2014.

[30] P. Ramadevi, D. Sampathkumar, C. V. Srinivasa, and B. Bennenalli, “Effect of alkali treatment on water absorption of single cellulosic abaca fiber,” BioResources, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 3515–3524, 2012.

[31] R. S. Kumar, N. Muralidharan, and R. Sathyamurthy, “Optimization of alkali treatment process parameters for kenaf fiber: Experiments design,” Journal of Natural Fibers, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.1080/15440478.2020.1856276.

[32] N. Sgriccia, M. C. Hawley, and M. Misra, “Characterization of natural fiber surfaces and natural fiber composites,” Composites: Part A, vol. 39, pp. 1632–1637, 2008.

[33] Y. Xu, S. Kawata, K. Hosoi, T. Kawai, and S. Kuroda, “Thermomechanical properties of the silanized-kenaf/polystyrene composites,” eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 657– 664, 2009.

[34] X. Gao, L. Lin, J. Pang, F. Chen, and Q. Li, “Effects of impulse-cyclone drying and silane modification on the properties of wood fiber/HDPE composite material,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 207, pp. 343–351, 2019.

[35] N. L. Feng, S. D. Malingam, N. Razali, and S. Subramonian, “Alkali and silane treatments towards exemplary mechanical properties of kenaf and pineapple leaf fibre-reinforced composites,” Journal of Bionic Engineering, vol. 17, pp. 380– 392, 2020.

[36] M. R. Islam, M. D. Beg, and A. Gupta, “Thermal and mechanical properties of laccase enzyme-treated kenaf fibre reinforced recycled polypropylene composites,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, 2011, pp.1–5.

[37] X. Peng, L. Zhong, J. Ren, and R. Sun, “Laccase and alkali treatments of cellulose fibre: Surface lignin and its influences on fibre surface properties and interfacial behaviour of sisal fibre/phenolic resin composites,” Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1848–1856, Dec. 2010.

[38] A. A. Mamun and A. K. Bledzki, “Micro fibre reinforced PLA and PP composites: Enzyme modification, mechanical and thermal properties,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 78, pp. 10–17, 2013.

[39] C. Chen, M. Cho, B. Kim, J. Namb, and Y. Lee, “Thermo plasticization and characterization of kenaf fiber by benzylation,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 18, pp. 1107– 1111, 2012.

[40] P. Upadhyaya, M. Garg, V. Kumar, and A. Nema, “The effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of wood flour/wheat husk polypropylene hybrid composites,” Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 3, pp. 317–325, 2012.

[41] N. E. Zafeiropoulos and C. A. Baillie, “A study of the effect of surface treatments on the tensile strength of flax fibres: Part II. Application of Weibull statistics,” Composites: Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 38, pp. 629– 638, 2007.

[42] N. Mokaloba and R. Batane, “The effects of mercerization and acetylation treatments on the properties of sisal fiber and its interfacial adhesion characteristics on polypropylene,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 83–97, 2014.

[43] J. G. Gwon, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Chun, G. H. Doh, and J. H. Kim, “Effects of chemical treatments of hybrid fillers on the physical and thermal properties of wood plastic composites,” Composites: Part A, vol. 41, pp. 1491–1497, 2010.
[44] M. S. Sreekala, M. G. Kumaran, and S. Thomas, “Oil palm fibres: Morphology, chemical composition, surface modification, and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 66, pp. 821–835, 1997.

[45] A. K. Mohanty, L. T. Drzal, and M. Misra, “Engineered natural fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: Influence of surface modifications and novel powder impregnation processing,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 999–1015, 2002.
[46] J. Rao, J. Zhou, and M. Fan, “Revealing the interface structure and bonding mechanism of coupling agent treated WPC,” Polymers, vol. 10, no. 266, pp. 1–13, 2018.

[47] N. M. Stark and S. A. Mueller, “Improving the color stability of wood-plastic composites through fiber pre-treatment,” Wood and Fiber Science, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 271–278, 2008.

[48] D. Nabi-Saheb and J. P. Jog, “Natural fiber polymer composites: A review,” Advances in Polymer Technology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 351–363, 1999.

[49] L. Mohammed, M. N. M. Ansari, G. Pua, M. Jawaid, and M. Saiful-Islam, “A review on natural fiber reinforced polymer composite and its applications,” International Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 2015, pp. 1–15, 2015.

[50] H. P. S. Abdul-Khalil, A. H. Bhat and A. F. Ireana- Yusra, “Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: A review,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 963–979, 2012.

[51] K. Y. Lee, A. Delille, and A. Bismarck, “Greener surface treatments of natural fibres for the production of renewable composite materials,” in Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites. Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 155–178.

[52] S. M. Rangappa and S. Siengchin, “Natural fiber as perspective materials,” KMUTNB: International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 233, 2018, doi: 10.14416/j.ijast.2018.09.001.

[53] P. Mayes, “Report on CCA treated timber in South Australia,” Environment Protection Authority, South Australia, Australia, 2008.

[54] C. M. Chan, L. J. Vandi, S. Pratt, P. Halley, D. Richardson, A. Werker, and B. Laycock, “Composites of wood and biodegradable thermoplastics: A review,” Polymer Reviews, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 444–494, 2018.

[55] S. Shinoj, R. Visvanathan, S. Panigrahi, and M. Kochubabu, “Oil palm fiber (OPF) and its composites: A review,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 33, pp. 7–22, 2011.

[56] P. Karinkanta, A. Ämmälä, M. Illikainen, and J. Niinimäki, “Fine grinding of wood – Overview from wood breakage to applications,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 113, pp. 31–44, 2018.

[57] P. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Wang, J. H. Chen, H. C. Hsueh, and M. J. Tsai, “Effect of material compositions on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites manufactured by compression moulding,” Materials and Design, vol. 30, pp. 3489–3496, 2009.

[58] A. Oushabi, S. Sair, F. Oudrhiri-Hassani, Y. Abboud, O. Tanane, and A. E. Bouari, “The effect of alkali treatment on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of date palm fibers (DPFs): Study of the interface of DPFePolyurethane composite,” South African Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 23, pp. 116–123, 2017.

[59] N. Ayrilmis and A. Kaymakci, “Fast growing biomass as reinforcing filler in thermoplastic composites: Paulownia elongata wood,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 43, pp. 457–464, 2013.
[60] A. D. Beshay, B. V. Kokta, and C. Daneault, “Use of wood fibers in thermoplastic composites II: Polyethylene,” Polymer Composites, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 261–271, 1985.

[61] G. Martins, F. Antunes, A. Mateus, and C. Malça, “Optimization of a wood plastic composite for architectural applications,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 12, pp. 203–220, 2017.

[62] C. Gozdecki and A. Wilczynski, “Effect of wood flour type on tensile properties of wood-polymer composites,” Forestry and Wood Technology, vol. 91, pp. 65–69, 2015.

[63] B. Madhusudhan Reddy, V. Y. Mohana Reddy, C. B. Mohan Reddy, and R. Meenakshi Reddy, “Mechanical, morphological, and thermogravimetric analysis of alkali-treated Cordia-Dichotoma natural fiber composites,” Journal of Natural Fibers, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 759–768, 2018.

[64] A. K. Mohanty, M. Misra, and L. T. Drzal, “Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: Opportunities and challenges in the green materials world,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment, vol. 10, pp. 19–26, 2002.

[65] M. A. Edeerozey, H. M. Akil, A. B. Azhar, and Z. M. Ariffin, “Chemical modification of kenaf fibers,” Materials Letters, vol. 61, pp. 2023–2025, 2007.

[66] A. Gholampour and T. Ozbakkaloglu, “A review of natural fiber composites: Properties, modification and processing techniques, characterization, applications,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 55, pp. 829–892, 2020.
[67] M. Zalinawati, J. P. Siregar, C. Tezara, N. Sazali, J. Jaafar, A. N. Oumer, and M. H. M. Hamdan, “The effect of fibre treatment on water absorption and mechanical properties of buri palm (Corypha utan) fibre reinforced epoxy composites,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences (JMES), vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 7379–7388, 2020.

[68] K. Setswalo, M. Namoshe, S. Kutua, O. P. Oladijo, and B. Samson, “Effect of thermal & alkali treatment on Pterocarpus angolensis (Mukwa) wood flour,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 7, pp. 205–210, 2017.

[69] O. K. Reddy, U. C. Maheswari, M. Shukla, J. I. Song, and V. A. Rajulu, “Tensile and structural characterisation of alkali treated Borassus fruit fine fibers,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 433–438, 2013.
[70] M. D. Teli and A. C. Jadhav, “Effect of alkali treatment on the properties of Agave augustifolia v. marginata fibre,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 2754–2761, 2016.

[71] Y. Ma, C. Wang, and F. Chu, “Effects of fiber surface treatments on the properties of wood fiber-phenolic foam composites,” BioResources, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 4722–4736, 2017.

[72] S. Borysiak and B. Doczekalska, “X-ray diffraction study of pine wood treated with NaOH,” Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 87–89, 2005.

[73] J. Gassan and A. K. Bledzki, “Alkali treatment of jute fibers: Relationship between structure and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 623–629, 1999.

[74] M. Das and D. Chakraborty, “Evaluation of improvement of physical and mechanical properties of bamboo fibers due to alkali treatment,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 522–527, 2008.

[75] A. Atiqah, M. A. Maleque, M. Jawaid, and M. Iqbal, “Development of kenaf-glass reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite for structural applications,” Composites: Part B, vol. 56, pp. 68–73, 2014.

[76] I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, and J. O. Adewara, “Investigating the effect of chemical treatment on the constituents and tensile properties of sisal fibre,” Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, vol. 9, no.6, pp. 569–582, 2010.

[77] S. H. Aziz and M. P. Ansell, “The effect of alkalization and fibre alignment on the mechanical and thermal properties of kenaf and hemp bast fibre composites: Part 1- polyester resin matrix,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, pp. 1219–1230, 2004.

[78] M. Farsi, “Wood-plastic composites: Influence of wood flour chemical modification on the mechanical performance,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 3587–3592, 2010.

[79] P. Sahu and M. K. Gupta, “A review on the properties of natural fibres and its bio-composites: Effect of alkali treatment,” Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, vol. 234, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2019.

[80] A. Vinod, S. M. Rangappa, S. Suchart, and P. Jyotishkumar, “Renewable and sustainable biobased materials: An assessment on biofibers, biofilms, biopolymers and biocomposites,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 258, pp. 1–27, 2020.
[81] S. M. Islam, S. Hamdan, I. Jusoh, R. M. Rahman, and S. A. Ahmed, “The effect of alkali pretreatment on mechanical and morphological properties of tropical wood polymer composites,” Materials and Design, vol. 33, pp. 419–424, 2012.
[82] D. Jain, I. Kamboj, T. K. Bera, A. S. Kang, and R. K. Singla, “Experimental and numerical investigations on the effect of alkaline hornification on the hydrothermal ageing of Agave natural fiber composites,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 130, pp. 431–439, 2019.

[83] J. J. Herbert, L. L. Muller, R. J. Schmidt, and M. L. Rollins, “The effect of sodium hydroxide on crystallite orientation measurements in cotton fibers,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 17, pp. 585–587, 1973.

[84] S. H. Zeronian, H. Kawabata, and K. W. Alger, “Factors affecting the tensile properties of nonmercerized and mercerized cotton fibers,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 179– 183, 1990.

[85] D. S. Varma, M. Varma, and I. K. Varma, “Coir fibers: Part I: Effect of physical and chemical treatments on properties,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 827–832, 1984.

[86] M. Cai, H. Takagi, A. N. Nakagaito, M. Katoh, T. Ueki, G. I. N. Waterhouse, and Y. Li, “Influence of alkali treatment on internal microstructure and tensile properties of abaca fibers,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 65, pp. 27–35, 2015.

[87] L. Y. Mwaikambo and M. P. Ansell, “Chemical modification of hemp, sisal, jute, and kapok fibers by alkalization,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 2222–2234, 2002.

[88] D. J. Johnson, “High-temperature stable and highperformance fibres,” in Applied Fibre Science. Massachusetts: Academic Press, 1979.
[89] A. Mukherjee, P. K. Ganguly, and D. Sur, “Structural mechanics of jute: The effects of hemicellulose or lignin removal,” The Journal of The Textile Institute, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 348–353, 1993.

[90] W. J. Zaini, M. Y. A. Fuad, Z. Ismail, M. S. Mansor, and J. Mustafah, “The effect of filler content and size on the mechanical properties of polypropylene/oil palm wood flour composites,” Polymer International, vol. 40, pp. 51–55, 1996.
[91] N. M. Stark and M. J. Berger, “Effect of particle size on properties of wood-flour reinforced polypropylene composites,” in the Fourth International Conference on Woodfiber-Plastic Composites, 1997, pp. 134–143.

[92] H. P. S. A. Khalil, S. B. Sharifah-Shahnaz, M. M. Ratnam, F. Ahmad, and N. A. Nik-Fuaad, “Recycle polypropylene (RPP) - wood saw dust (WSD) composites - Part 1: The effect of different filler size and filler loading on mechanical and water absorption properties,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1291– 1303, 2006.

[93] M. G. Salemane and A. S. Luyt, “Thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene–wood powder composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 100, pp. 4173–4180, 2006.

[94] L. Jong, “Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 74, pp. 136–147, 2016.

[95] S. Richard, J. S. Rajadurai, and V. Manikandan, “Effects of particle loading and particle size on tribological properties of biochar particulate reinforced polymer composites,” Journal of Tribology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2016.

[96] B. Bosan, H. Binta, O. H. Adejo, D. Clive, E. E. Ukamaka, S. Muhayyadeen, and T. S. Ayeni, “Effect of particle size and filler content on some properties of recycled low density polyethylene/ periwinkle shell composite,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 21–25, 2020.

[97] E. O. Olakanmi, M. O. Thompson, E. Vunainc, M. Doyoyo, and R. Meijboomc, “Effects of daniella oliveri wood flour characteristics on the processing and functional properties of wood polymer composites (WPCs),” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 31, pp. 1073–1084, 2016.

[98] V. Gulitah and K. C. Liew, “Three different recycle codes of plastic/Acacia fibre composites: Physical and morphological properties,” International Journal of Biobased Plastics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2019.

[99] S. Siwek, J. Oktaee, S. Grasselt Gille, and A. Wagenführ, “Influence of different wood flour fractions on the mechanical properties of injection molded WPC with cellulose propionate,” European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol. 76, pp. 499–507, 2018.

[100] S. A. Seth, I. S. Aji, and A. Tokan, “Effects of particle size and loading on tensile and flexural properties of polypropylene reinforced doum palm shell particles composites,” American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS), vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 231–239, 2018.

[101] N. S. Sadeq, Z. G. Mohammadsalih, and R. H. Mohammed, “Effect of grain size on the structure and properties of coir epoxy composites,” SN Applied Sciences, vol. 2, p. 1191, 2020.

[102] A. O. Ameh, M. T. Isa, and I. Sanusi, “Effect of particle size and concentration on the mechanical properties of polyester/date palm seed particulate composites,” Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, vol. 14, no. 26, pp. 65–78, 2015.

[103] P. Sälzer, P. Feldmann, and H. P. Heim, “Wood-polypropylene composites: Influence of processing on the particle shape and size in correlation with the mechanical properties using dynamic image analysis,” International Polymer Processing, vol. 33, pp. 677–687, 2018.

[104] A. Kaboorani, “Characterizing water sorption and diffusion properties of wood/plastic composites as a function of formulation design,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 136, pp. 164–172, 2017.

[105] H. C. Chen, T. Y. Chen, and C. H. Hsu, “Effects of wood particle size and mixing ratios of HDPE on the properties of the composites,” Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, vol. 64, pp. 172–177, 2006.

[106] M. Kociszewski, C. Gozdecki, A. Wilczynski, S. Zajchowski, and J. Mirowski, “Effect of industrial wood particle size on mechanical properties of wood-polyvinyl chloride composites,” European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol. 70, pp. 113–118, 2012.

[107] S. Rimdusit, W. Smittakorn, S. Jittarom, and S. Tiptipakorn, “Highly filled polypropylene rubber wood flour composites,” Engineering Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 17–30, 2011.

[108] N. M. Stark and R. E. Rowlands, “Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites,” Wood Fiber Science, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 167–174, 2003.

[109] C. Gozdecki, S. Zajchowski, M. Kociszewski, A. Wilczynski, and J. Mirowski, “Effect of wood particle size on mechanical properties of industrial wood particle-polyethylene composites,” Polimery, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 375–380, 2011.

[110] A. Nourbakhsh, A. Karegarfard, A. Ashori, and A. Nourbakhsh, “Effects of particle size and coupling agent concentration on mechanical properties of particulate-filled polymer composites,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 169–174, 2010.
[111] C. Gozdecki, A. Wilczynski, M. Kociszewski, and S. Zajchowski, “Properties of wood-plastic composites made of milled particleboard and polypropylene,” European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2015.

[112] C. Gozdecki, A. Wilczynski, M. Kociszewski, J. Tomaszewska, and S. Zajchowski, “Mechanical properties of wood-polypropylene composites with industrial wood particles of different sizes,” Wood and Fiber Science, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 2012.

[113] A. Salah, B. Abderrezak, D. Alain, S. Fabrizio, and I. Abdellatif, “Investigation of the date palm fiber for green composites reinforcement: Thermo-physical and mechanical properties of the fiber,” Journal of Natural Fibers, pp. 1–18, 2019.

[114] X. Lu, M. Q. Zhang, M. Z. Rong, D. L. Yue, and G. C. Yang, “The preparation of self-reinforced sisal fiber composites,” Polymers & Polymer Composites, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 297–307, 2004.

[115] F. Sarker, N. Karim, S. Afroj, V. Koncherry, K. S. Novoselov, and P. Potluri, “High performance graphene-based natural fibre composites,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, pp. 1–30, 2018.

[116] H. Chen, W. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Wang, Y. Wu, T. Zhong, and B. Fei, “Effect of alkali treatment on wettability and thermal stability of individual bamboo fibers,” Journal of Wood Science, vol. 64, pp. 398–405, 2018.

[117] J. Lin, Z. Yang, X. Hu, G. Hong, S. Zhang, and W. Song, “The effect of alkali treatment on properties of dopamine modification of bamboo fiber/ polylactic acid composites,” Polymers, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1–12, 2018.

[118] M. H. Zin, K. Abdan, N. Mazlan, E. S. Zainudin, and K. E. Liew, “The effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and chemical properties of pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) and adhesion to epoxy resin,” IOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 368, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/368/1/012035.
[119] R. M. Government and O. D. Onukwuli, “Effect of chemical treatment of avocado wood flour (AWF) on the properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) for the production of natural filler polymer composites,” International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 627–639, 2016.

[120] P. Madhu, S. M. Rangappa, M. Jawaid, S. Siengchin, A. Khan, and C. I. Pruncu, “A new study on effect of various chemical treatments on agave americana fiber for composite reinforcement: Physico-chemical, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties,” Polymer Testing, vol. 85, p. 106437, 2020.

[121] Y. Ishikura and T. Nakano, “Compressive stress-strain properties of natural materials treated with aqueous NaOH,” Holzforschung, vol. 62, pp. 448–452, 2008.

[122] T. Nakano, “Mechanism of microfibril contraction and anisotropic dimensional changes for cells in wood treated with aqueous NaOH solution,” Cellulose, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 711–719, 2010.

[123] J. I. P. Singh, S. Singh, and V. Dhawan, “Effect of alkali treatment on mechanical properties of jute fiber-reinforced partially biodegradable green composites using epoxy resin matrix,” Polymers and Polymer Composites, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 388–397, 2020.

[124] R. G. Reid, O. M. Asumani, and R. Paskaramoorthy, “The effect on the mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene resulting from alkali-silane surface treatment,” presented at the 16th International Conference on Composite Structures, Porto, Jun. 28–30, 2011.

[125] A. Bartos, J. Anggono, A. E. Farkas, D. Kun, F. E. Soetaredjo, F. Móczó, Antoni, H. Purwaningsih, and B. Pukánszky, “Alkali treatment of lignocellulosic fibers extracted from sugarcane bagasse: Composition, structure, properties,” Polymer Testing, vol. 88, pp. 1–41, 2020.

[126] J. Fu, C. He, C. Jiang, and Y. Chen, “Degradation resistance of alkali-treated eucalyptus fiber reinforced high density polyethylene composites as function of simulated sea water exposure,” BioResources, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 6384–6396, 2019.

[127] M. Jacob, S. Thomas, and K. T. Varughese, “Mechanical properties of sisal/oil palm hybrid fiber reinforced natural rubber composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, pp. 955–965, 2004.

[128] M. Jacob, S. Thomas, and K. T. Varughese, “Novel woven sisal fabric reinforced natural rubber composites: Tensile and swelling characteristics,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 40, pp. 1471– 1485, 2006.

[129] Y. Cao, S. Sakamoto, and K. Goda, “Effects of heat and alkali treatments on mechanical properties of kenaf fibers,” in 16th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2007, pp. 1–4.

[130] A. Alawar, A. M. Hamed, and K. Al-Kaabi, “Characterization of treated date palm tree fiber as composite reinforcement,” Composites: Part B, vol. 40, pp. 601–606, 2009.

[131] A. K. Rout, J. Kar, D. K. Jesthi, and A. K. Sutar, “Effect of surface treatment on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of palm tree leafs stalk fibers,” BioResources, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 4432–4445, 2016.

[132] D. Ray and B. K. Sarkar, “Characterization of alkali-treated jute fibers for physical and mechanical properties,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1013–1020, 2001.

[133] M. Sayanjali Jasbi, H. Hasani, A. Zadhoush, and S. Safi, “Effect of alkali treatment on mechanical properties of the green composites reinforced with milkweed fibers,” The Journal of the Textile Institute, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 24–31, 2018.

[134] C. H. Mohan, G. G. Reddy, and C. M. Gowda, “Mechanical properties of untreated and alkali treated sida acuta stem fibre,” International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1352–1359, Feb. 2015.

[135] V. Fiore, G. D. Bella, and A. Valenza, “The effect of alkaline treatment on mechanical properties of kenaf fibers and their epoxy composites,” Composites: Part B, vol. 68, pp. 14–21, 2015.

[136] M. Y. Yuhazri, P. T. Phongsakorn, H. Sihombing, A. R. Jeefferie, P. Perumal, and A. M. Kamarul, “Mechanical properties of kenaf/polyester composites,” International Journal of Engineering Technology, vol. 11, pp. 127–131, 2011.

[137] M. Rokbi, H. Osmani, A. Imad, and N. Benseddiq, “Effect of chemical treatment on flexure properties of natural fiber-reinforced polyester composite,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 2092–2097, 2011.

[138] P. Saha, S. Manna, S. R. Chowdhury, R. Sen, D. Roy, and B. Adhikari, “Enhancement of tensile strength of lignocellulosic jute fibers by alkali-steam treatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, pp. 3182–3187, 2010.

[139] H. M. Akil, M. F. Omar, A. A. Mazuki, S. Safiee, Z. A. Ishak, and A. Abu Bakar, “Kenaf fiber reinforced composites: A review,” Materials and Design, vol. 32, pp. 4107–4121, 2011.

[140] A. K. Bledzki, S. Reihmane, and J. Gassan, “Thermoplastics reinforced with wood fillers: A literature review,” Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 451–468, 1998.

[141] R. G. Raj, B. Kokta, D. Maldas, and C. Daneault, “Use of wood fibers in thermoplastics. VII. The effect of coupling agents in polyethylene-wood fiber composites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1089–1103, 1989.

[142] J. B. Zhong, J. Lv, and C. Wei, “Mechanical properties of sisal fibre reinforced urea-formaldehyde resin composites,” eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol. 1, no. 10, pp. 681–687, 2007.

[143] M. Jacob, S. Thomas, and K. T. Varughese, “Natural rubber composites reinforced with sisal/oil palm hybrid fibers: Tensile and cure characteristics,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 93, pp. 2305–2312, 2004.

[144] S. Somashekar and G. C. Shanthakumar, “Effect of alkali treatment on mechanical properties of sisal reinforced epoxy polymer matrix composite,” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 441–450, 2014.

[145] A. K. Bledzki, J. Gassan, and S. Theis, “Woodfilled thermoplastic composites,” Presented at the 10th International Conference on the Mechanics of Composite Materials, Riga, Oct. 1–6, 1998.

[146] Y. A. El-Shekeil, S. M. Sapuan, K. Abdan, and E. S. Zainudin, “Effect of alkali treatment and pMDI Isocyanate additive on tensile properties of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite,” in 2011 International Conference on Advanced Materials Engineering, 2011, pp. 20–24.

[147] Y. A. El-Shekeil, S. M. Sapuan, A. Khalina, E. S. Zainudin, and O. M. Al-Shuja’a, “Influence of chemical treatment on the tensile properties of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composite,” eXPRESS Polymer Letters, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1032–1040, 2012.

[148] A. A. Rashdi, S. M. Sapuan, M. M. Ahmad, and K. b. Abdan, “Review of kenaf fiber reinforced polymer composites,” Polimery, vol. 54, no. 11– 12, pp. 775–888, 2009.

[149] S. Lee, I. Kang, G. Doh, H. Yoon, B. Park, and Q. Wu, “Thermal and mechanical properties of wood flour/talc-filled polylactic acid composites: Effect of filler content and coupling treatment,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 21, no. 209, pp. 209–223, 2008.
[150] G. W. Beckermann and K. L. Pickering, “Engineering and evaluation of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene composites: Fibre treatment and matrix modification,” Composites: Part A, vol. 39, pp. 979–988, 2008.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2021.08.005


  • There are currently no refbacks.