Page Header

Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of N/Li2MoO4 Co-doped TiO2 Nanoparticles under Visible Light

Jutarat Kwakkaew, Matthana Khangkhamano, Rungrote Kokoo, Weerachai Sangchay


TiO2-based nanomaterials have been extensively synthesized and used in a wide range of photocatalytic applications. The photocatalytic oxidation process, however, is only activated by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light which limits its indoor applications. Herein, to improve such limitations, N/Li2MoO4-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared via sol-gel method. Li2MoO4 concentration was varied. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, FE-SEM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. As-synthesized N/Li2MoO4-doped TiO2 catalysts exhibited their crystal sizes of as fine as 20 nm in diameter whereas that of the pure TiO2 was about 35 nm. The absorption ranges of the N/ Li2MoO4-doped catalysts were relocated from UV region toward visible light region. The catalyst with 1 mol% Li2MoO4 offered the highest degradation rate of methylene blue (MB) solution upon visible light irradiation. Its fine crystal size, narrow band gap energy (2.82 eV), high defect concentration, and strong light absorption in visible region are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the 1 mol% Li2MoO4.


[1] F. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Liu, C. Liu, Y. Wan, Y. Long, and Z. Cai, “Recent advances and applications of semiconductor photocatalytic technology,” Applied Sciences, vol. 9, 2019, Art. no. 2489.

[2] S. Bouattour, W. Kallel, A. M. Botelho do Rego, L. F. V. Ferreira, I. F. Machado, and S. Boufi, “Li-doped nanosized TiO2 powder with enhanced photocalatylic acivity under sunlight irradiation,” Applied Organometallic Chemistry, vol. 24, pp. 692–699, 2010.

[3] O. Diwald, T. L. Thompson, T. Zubkov, E. G. Goralski, S. D. Walck, and J. T. Yates, “Photochemical activity of nitrogen-doped rutile TiO2(110) in visible light,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, pp. 6004–6008, 2004.

[4] W. Sangchay, “The self-cleaning and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 doped with SnO2 thin films preparation by sol-gel method,” in 12th Eco- Energy and Materials Science and Engineering Symposium, 2016, pp. 170–176.

[5] J. C. Colmenares, M. A. Aramendia, A. Marinas, J. M. Marinas, and F. J. Urbano, “Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of different metal-doped titania systems,” Applied Catalysis A: General, vol. 306, pp. 120–127, 2006.

[6] A. N. Banerjee, N. Hamnabard, and H. W. Joo, “A comparative study of the effect of Pd-doping on the structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of sol-gel derived anatase TiO2 nanoparticles,” Ceramics International, vol. 42, pp. 12010–12026, 2016.

[7] H. Yan, T. Zhao, X. Lin, and C. Hun, “Synthesis of Cu-dopednano-TiO2 by detonationmethod,” Ceramics International, vol. 41, pp. 14204– 14211, 2015.

[8] S. N. R. Inturi, M. Suidan, and P. G. Smirniotis, “Influence of synthesis method on leaching of the Cr-TiO2 catalyst for visible light liquid phase photocatalysis and their stability,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 108, pp. 351– 361, 2016.

[9] T. C. Jagadale, S. P. Takale, R. S. Sonawane, H. M. Joshi, S. I. Patil, B. B. Kale, and S. B. Ogale, “N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle based visible light photocatalyst by modified peroxide sol-gel method,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, pp. 14595–14602, 2008.

[10] J. Chen, J. Shu, Z. Anqi, H. Juyuan, Z. Yan, and J. Chen, “Synthesis of carbon quantum dots/ TiO2 nanocomposite for photo-degradation of Rhodamine B and cefradine,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 70, pp. 137–144, 2016.

[11] T. K. Ghorai, “Photocatalytic degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by CuMoO4-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by chemical route,” Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 28–36, 2011.

[12] R. B. Dehkordy and Z. Aghajani, “Hydrothermalassisted synthesis of TiO2@NiMoO4 nanocomposites and evaluation of their photocatalysis properties,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 278–285, 2019.

[13] Z. Aghajani and S. M. H. Mashkani, “Design novel Ce(MoO4)2@TiO2n–n heterostructures: enhancement photodegradation of toxic dyes,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 31, pp. 6593–6606, 2020.

[14] M. Zhang, J. Wu, J. Hou, and J. Yang, “Molybdenum and nitrogen co-doped titanium dioxide nanotube arrays with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity,” Science of Advanced Materials, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 535–541, 2013.

[15] K. Ravindhranath and B. S. Reddy, “Leaves and barks of some plants as bio-adsorbents in the control of methylene blue dye from waste waters,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 5612–5624, 2014.

[16] R. Ahmad and P. K. Mondal, “Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by using PAni/TiO2 nanocomposite,” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, vol. 33, pp. 380–386, 2012.

[17] S. Wijannarong, S. Aroonsrimorakot, P. Thavipoke, A. Kumsopa, and S. Sangjan, “Removal of reactive dyes from textile dyeing industrial effluent by ozonation process,” in 4th International Conference on Environmental Science and Development, 2013, pp. 279–282.

[18] Z. Yang, T. A. Asoh, and H. Uyama, “Removal of cationic or anionic dyes from water using ion exchange cellulose monoliths as adsorbents,” Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 1453–1461, 2019.

[19] Y. Li, L. Liu, M. Guo, and M. Zhang, “Synthesis of TiO2 visible light catalysts with controllable crystalline phase and morphology from Ti-bearing electric arc furnace molten slag,” Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 47, pp. 14– 22, 2016.

[20] R. Li, Y. Jia, N. Bu, J. Wu, and Q. Zhen, “Photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue using Fe2O3/TiO2 composite ceramics,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 643, pp. 88–93, 2015.

[21] S. Anjum, S. Shaheen, M. S. Awan, and R. Zia, “Effect of various surfactants on optical and electrical properties of Cu+2-doped ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles,” Applied Physics A, vol. 125, 2019, Art. no. 273.

[22] S. Ambika and M. Sundrarajan, “[EMIM] BF4 ionic liquid-mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles using Vitex negundo Linn extract and its antibacterial activity,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 221, pp. 986–992, 2016.

[23] A. S. Hassanien and A. A. Akl, “Effect of Se addition on optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSSe thin films,” Superlattices and Microstructures, vol. 89, pp. 153–169, 2016.

[24] S. N. Muhith, B. D. Choudhury, M. T. Uddin, and M. A. Islam, “Study of photocatalysts for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater,” International Journal of Integrated Sciences & Technology, vol. 2, pp. 19–23, 2016.

[25] X. Cheng, X. Yu, Z. Xing, and J. Wan, “Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 anatase nano-particle under simulated sunlight irradiation,” in 2012 Future Energy, Environment, and Materials, 2012, pp. 598–605.

[26] L. Yu, X. Yang, J. He, Y. He, and D. Wang, “One-step hydrothermal method to prepare nitrogen and lanthanum co-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {0 0 1} facets and study on their photocatalytic activities in visible light,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 637, pp. 308–314, 2015.

[27] L. G. Devi, B. N. Murhty, and S. G. Kumar, “Photo catalytic degradation of imidachloprid under solar light using metal ion doped TiO2 nano particles: Influence of oxidation state and electronic configuration of dopants,” Catalysis Letters, vol. 130, pp. 496–503, 2009.

[28] J. Wang, W. Zhu, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “An efficient two-step technique for nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide synthesizing: Visible-light-induced photodecomposition of methylene blue,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 1010–1014, 2007.

[29] T. C. Jagadale, S. P. Takale, R. S. Sonawane, H. M. Joshi, S. I. Patil, B. B. Kale, and S. B. Ogale, “N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle based visible light photocatalyst by modified peroxide sol-gel method,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 37, pp. 14595–14602, 2008.

[30] Y. D. Hou, X. C. Wang, L. Wu, X. F. Chen, Z. X. Ding, X. X. Wang, and X. Z. Fu, “N-doped SiO2/TiO2 mesoporous nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation,” Chemosphere, vol. 72, pp. 414–421, 2008.

[31] A. Hamdi, L. Boussekey, P. Roussel, A. Addad, H. Ezzaouia, R. Boukherroub, and Y. Coffinier, “Hydrothermal preparation of MoS2/TiO2/Si nanowires composite with enhanced photocatalytic performance under visible light,” Materials & Design, vol. 109, pp. 634–643, 2016.

[32] J. Huang, X. Guo, B. Wang, L. Li, M. Zhao, L. Dong, X. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Mo-doped TiO2 nanoparticles,” Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2015, 2015, Art. no. 681850.

[33] S. K. Shukla, E. S. Agorku, H. Mittal, and A. K. Mishra, “Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of Ce3+ doped ZnO nanophosphor,” Chemical Papers, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 217–222, 2014.

[34] X. Zhang, K. Udagawa, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, C. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Sakai, M. Abe, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishma, “Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical studies on N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 202, pp. 39–47, 2009.

[35] B. B. Adormaa, W. K. Darkwah, and Y. Ao, “Oxygen vacancies of the TiO2 nano-based composite photocatalysts in visible light responsive photocatalysis,” RSC Advances, vol. 8, pp. 33551– 33563, 2018.

[36] I. Jang, H. J. Leong, H. Noh, T. Kang, S. Kong, and S. G. Oh, “Preparation of N-functionalized TiO2 particles using one-step sol-gel method and their photocatalytic activity,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 37, pp. 380–389, 2016.

[37] T. Maggos, J. Bartzis, P. Leva, and D. Kotzias, “Application of photocatalytic technology for NOx removal,” Applied Physics A, vol. 89, pp. 81–84, 2007.

[38] Z. Wu, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and Z. Gu, “Photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide with immobilized titanium dioxide films synthesized by hydrothermal method,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 151, pp. 17–25, 2008.

[39] J. Huang, D. Li, R. Li, P. Chen, Q. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Lv, G. Liu, and Y. Feng, “One-step synthesis of phosphorus/oxygen co-doped g-C3N4/anatase TiO2 Z-scheme photocatalyst for significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalysis degradation of enrofloxacin,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 386, 2020, Art. no. 121634.

[40] D. A. Duarte, M. Massi, and A. S. da Silva Sobrinho, “Development of dye-sensitized solar cells with sputtered N-doped TiO2 thin films: From modeling the growth mechanism of the films to fabrication of the solar cells,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2014, 2014, Art. no. 39757.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2021.10.007


  • There are currently no refbacks.