Page Header

Enhancing Cotton Fabrics Properties by Coating with Zinc Oxide and Carbon Black Nanomaterials and Dyeing with Terminalia catappa Leaves Powder

Sudaporn Tangkawanit, Elisabeth Viguie Culshaw, Piriyaporn Keawsri


This research focused on thermal stability, color fastness and UV protection properties enhancing cotton fabric coated with ZnO and carbon black nanoparticles and dyed with Terminalia catappa leaves powder. The XRD patterns of ZnO nanoparticles contained peaks associated with the hexagonal system, which can be attributed to the structure of ZnO wurtzite. The XRD pattern of carbon black showed a typical amorphous structure. SEM images of the coated cotton surface revealed a scattering of carbon and zinc oxide nanoparticles that increases in size in relation to the amount of carbon and zinc nanoparticles. The ATR-FT-IR spectra of cotton coated with ZnO and carbon revealed the presence of O-H bond, H-C-H bond, C-O-C bond, C-O bond and Zn-O bond. TGA analysis revealed that the cotton coated with zinc oxide and carbon exhibited a greater than 100 °C heat resistance. TGA analysis of cotton coated with CZ4 nanoparticles at 352 °C revealed a weight loss of 70.61%, whereas uncoated cotton lost 85.96 percent of its weight at 358 °C. Light fastness and washing fastness properties of cotton coated with zinc oxide and carbon nanoparticles were 4–5 (good to very good). The FE-SEM and EDS elemental analyses were used to confirm residual elements affected by the excellent UV protective functions of the coated cotton. Cotton fabrics coated with Zn3 and CZn4 are the optimal condition for enhancing the thermal stability, washability, and UV protection of dyed cotton. After 30 wash cycles, the EDS analysis revealed that the cotton fabrics coated with Zn3 and CZn4 retained their durability, with Zn element concentrations of 66.62 (%W) and 67.60 (%W), respectively. The coated cotton significantly outperforms uncoated cotton in terms of thermal stability, color fastness, UV blocking, tensile strength, and air permeability. As the results of this research established; the optimal dyeing protocol for cotton to obtain the desired textile properties.


[1] P. Muangthai, P. Chawenggrum, and W. Khunwarakul, “Utilization of extracted substance from Indian almond leaves, Terminalia catappa L. for preparation of folk medicinal cream for the use of skin protection,” Journal of Applied and Natural Science. vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 144–148, Mar. 2015.

[2] Y. M. Fan, L. Z. Xu, and J. Gaoetal, “Phytochemical and anti-inflammatory studies on Terminalia catappa,” Fitoterapia, vol. 75, no. 3–4, pp. 253– 260, Jun. 2004.

[3] Y. L. Lin, Y. H. Kuo, M. S. Shiao, C. C. Chen, and J. C. Ou, “Flavonoid glycosides from Terminalia catappa L.,” Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 253–256, Feb. 2000.

[4] Y. Vadwala and N. Kola, “Natural dyes extracted from waste leaves of Terminalia cattapa locally known as tropical almond and its application on silk fabrics pretreated with ecofriendly and noneco–friendly mordants,” International Journal of Research–Granthaalayah, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 125–137, May. 2017.

[5] S. Kinoshita, Y. Inoue, S. Nakama, T. Ichiba, and Y. Aniya, “Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin,” Phytomedicine, vol. 14, pp.755–762, Feb. 2007.

[6] S. M. Ahmed, V. B. M. Swamy, P. Gopkumar, R. Dhanapal, and V. M. Chandrashekara, “Anti– diabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn. leaf extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” Iranian Journal of Phamacology & Therapeutics, vol. 4, pp. 36–39, Jun. 2005.

[7] N. B. Pandya, P. Tigari, K. Dupadahalli, H. Kamurthy, and R. R. Nadendla, “Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 464–469, Sep. 2013.
[8] S. L. Shinde, S. B. Junne, S. S. Wadje, and M. M. Baig, “The diversity of antibacterial compounds of Terminalia species (Combretaceae),” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 1483– 1486, Nov. 2009.

[9] E. F. Hashim, I. John1, I. Faraha, A. Ghani1, S. H. Mohtar1, and M. N. A. Azmai, “Determination of concentration boundaries for the toxicity of Terminalia catappa Linn. Leaves extract on healthy Carassius auratus,” Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, pp. 52–57, Feb. 2016.

[10] S. J. Webster, M. H. Wright, A. C. Greene, and I. E. Cock, “Natural methods for preventing fish spoilage using Indian Terminalia spp. extracts: Growth inhibition of Shewanella spp. Pharmacogn,” Pharmacognosy Communications, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 66–75. Apr.–Jun. 2017.

[11] J. C. Taganna, J. P. Quanico, R. M. Perono, E. C. Amor, and W. L. Rivera, “Tannin-rich fraction from Terminalia catappa inhibits quorum sensing (QS) in Chromobacterium violaceum and the QS-controlled biofilm maturation and LasA staphylolytic activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, pp. 865–871, Apr. 2011.

[12] R. M. Faisal and A. Chafidz, “Extraction of natural dye from ketapang leaf (Terminalia catappa) for coloring textile materials,” in 1st International Symposium of Indonesian Chemical Engineering (ISIChem) 2018, 2019, no. 543, pp. 1–7.

[13] A. B. Muhammadu, A. Hassan, and R. M. Okezi, “Characterisation of colourant extracted from almond leaves,” Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 31–44, 2017.

[14] A. K. Prusti, A. Purohit, N. B. Das, and A. Nayak, “Terminalia catappa as a suitable natural dye for silk and cotton yarns,” Colourage, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 84–85, 2019.

[15] V. H. T. Thi and B. Lee, “Development of multifunctional self- cleaning and UV blocking cotton fabric with modification of photoactive ZnO coating via microwave method,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 338, pp. 13–22, Apr. 2017.

[16] M. T. Noman and M. Petrů, “Functional properties of sonochemically synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles and cotton composites,” Nanomaterials, vol. 10, no. 1661, pp. 1–14, Aug. 2020.

[17] K. Ding, W. Wang, D. Yu, P. Gao, and B. Liu, “Facile formation of flexible Ag/AgCl/ polydopamine/cotton fabric composite photocatalysts as an efficient visible-light photocatalysts,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 454, no. 10, pp. 101–111, Oct. 2018.

[18] K. B. H. Yazhini and G. P. Halliah, “Antibacterial activity of cotton coated with ZnO and ZnOCNT composites,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, pp. 1–8, Sep. 2014.
[19] S. P. Bharath, J. Manjanna, A. Javeed, and S. Yallappa, “Multi-walled carbon nanotube– coated cotton fabric for possible energy storage devices,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–4, Feb. 2015.

[20] F. Alimohammadia, M. P. Gashtib, and A. Shameia, “A novel method for coating of carbon nanotube on cellulose fiber using 1, 2, 3, 4- butanetetracarboxylic acid as a cross-linking agent,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 470–478, Jul. 2012.
[21] J. Xu, J. Y. Zhang, J. Xu, Y. Chang, F. Shi, Z. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Design of functional cotton fabric via modified carbon nanotubes,” Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 71–78, Jan. 2020.

[22] N. Supaka, “Building a Thai brand with nanomaterials from production,” Bio & Nano,” vol. 41, no. 235, pp. 29–31, 2014 (in thai).

[23] M. E. Spahr and R. Rothon, “Carbon black as a polymer filler,” in Fillers for Polymer Applications. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, pp. 261–291.

[24] R. Yang, Z. Zhu, C. Hu, S. Zhong, L. Zhang, B. Liu, and W. Wang, “One-step preparation (3D/2D/2D) BiVO4/FeVO4@ rGO heterojunction composite photocatalyst for the removal of tetracycline and hexavalent chromium ions in water,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 390, Jun. 2020, Art. no. 124522.

[25] R. Yang, S. Zhong, L. Zhang, and B. Liu, “PW12/ CN@ Bi2WO6 composite photocatalyst prepared based on organic-inorganic hybrid system for removing pollutants in water,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 235, Mar. 2020, Art. no. 116270.

[26] Y. Wang, K. Ding, R. Xu, D. Yu, W. Wang, P. Gao, and B. Liu, “Fabrication of BiVO4/BiPO4/GO composite photocatalytic material for the visible light–driven degradation,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 247, Feb. 2020, Art. no. 119108.

[27] B. Liu, L. Lin, D. Yu, J. Sun, Z. Zhu, P. Gao, and W. Wang, “Construction of fiber-based BiVO4/SiO2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with efficient visible light photocatalytic activity,” Cellulose, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1089–1101, Dec. 2017.

[28] K. Krishnamoorthy, U. Navaneethaiyer, R. Mohan, J. Lee, and S. Kim, “Graphene oxide nanostructures modified multifunctional cotton fabrics,” Applied Nanoscience, vol. 2, pp. 119– 126, Nov. 2012.

[29] A. Verbič, M . Gorjanc, and B. Simončič, “Zinc oxide for functional textile coatings: Recent advances,” Coatings, vol. 9, no. 9, Aug. 2019, Art. no. 550. [30] M. Batool, S. Khurshid, Z. Qureshi, and W. M. Daoush, “Adsorption, antimicrobial and wound healing activities of biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles,” Chemical Papers, vol. 75, pp. 893–907, Sep. 2020.

[31] G. Wulfsberg, Inorganic Chemistry. Virginia: University Science Books, 2000, p. 57.

[32] L. Karimi, M. Mirjalili, and M. E. Yazdanshenas, “Effect of nano TiO2 on self-cleaning property of cross-link cotton fabrics with succinic acid under UV irradiation,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1030–1037, Oct. 2010.

[33] S. Tangkawanit, “Dyeing of nano carbon and titanium dioxide coated monk robes using natural dye powder,” The Journal of King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 145–156, 2019, doi: 10.14416/j.kmutnb.2018.12.07 (in Thai).

[34] I. Garrido, S. Aznar–Cervantes, M. Aliste, M. J. Yáñez–Gascón, N. Vela, J. L. Cenis, S. Navarro, and J. Fenoll, “Photocatalytic performance of electrospun silk fibroin/ZnO mats to remove pesticide residues from water under natural sunlight,” Catalysts, vol. 10, no. 1, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 110.

[35] I. Th. Shaheen, E. E. l. Mehrez, M. A. Abdelrahman, and A. Hebeish, “Durable antibacterial and UV protections of in situ synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles onto cotton fabrics,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 83, pp. 426–432, Nov. 2015.

[36] Y. W. H. Wong, C. W. M. Yuen, M. Y. S. Leung, S. K. A. Ku, and H. L. I. Lam, “Selected applications of nanotechnology in textiles,” AUTEX Research Journal, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–8. Mar. 2006.

[37] L. Karimi, S. Zohoori, and A. Amini “Multiwall carbon nanotube and nano titanium dioxide coated on cotton fabric for superior self–cleaning and UV blocking,” New Carbon Material, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 380–385, Oct. 2014.

[38] C. Wang, X. Zhang, L. Fangbing, and L. Peng, “Using carbon black nanoparticles to dye the cationic-modified cotton fabrics,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 5194–5199, Jun. 2012.

[39] A. Farouk, S. Moussa, M. Ulbricht, and T. Textor, “ZnO nanoparticles–chitosan composite as antibacterial finish for textiles,” Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, vol. 2012, 2012, Art. no. 693629.

[40] D. Grifoni, L. Bacci, S. Di, L. Patrizia, P. Arianna, S. Francesca, C. Francesco, S. Gaetano, and Z. A. Romani, “UV protective properties of cotton and flax fabrics dyed with multifunctional plant extracts,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 105, pp. 89– 96, Jun. 2014.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2022.05.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.