Page Header

The Optimization of Sheet Forming on Residual Stress and Surface Roughness with Two Point Incremental Forming Process (TPIF) of Aluminum Alloy Parts

Suriya Prasomthong, Keattipong Onbat


This study investigates the residual stress and surface roughness of AA5052 aluminum alloy with two points incremental forming (TPIF) processed. The experimental tool used for forming was a ball-shape tool for the truncated cone geometry of workpieces and forming by CNC machines. The residual stress was measured using the experimental forming tool. The residual stress was measured using the X-ray diffraction method. This study aimed to optimize the parameters using the Taguchi and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques. The TPIF process parameters include tool rotation speed and incremental depth. The results revealed that the optimal parameter obtained for the lowest residual stress and surface roughness were A1B1 (Rotation speed 0 rpm and Incremental depth 0.3 mm) with residual stress of 21.14 MPa and 0.46 μm of surface roughness. According to the results obtained by ANOVA, it was found that the rotation speed was significant to residual stress and incremental depth insignificant to residual stress. On the other hand, the most significant factor for surface roughness was incremental depth, but rotation speed was insignificant to surface roughness of formed parts at 95% confidence level.


[1] N. A. Ismail, M. I. S. Ismail, M. A. M. Radzman, M. K. A. M. Ariffin, and A. As'arry, “Parametric optimization of robot-based single point incremental forming using Taguchi method,” International Journal of Integrated Engineering, vol. 11, pp. 217–224, 2019.

[2] P. B. Uttarwar, S. K Raini, and D. S. Malwad, “Optimization of process parameter on surface roughness (Ra) and wall thickness on SPIF using Taguchi method,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 781–784, 2015.

[3] S. D. Majali, G. Chandramohan, and M. S. Kumar, “Effect of incremental forming process parameters on aluminum alloy using experimental studies,” Advanced Materials Research, vol. 1119, pp. 633–639, 2015.

[4] M. B. Silva and P. A. F. Martins, “Two-point incremental forming with partial die: Theory and experimentation,” Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, vol. 22, pp. 1018– 1027, 2013.

[5] F. Maqbool and M. Bambach, “Experimental and numerical investigation of the influence of process parameters in incremental sheet metal forming on residual stresses,” Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, vol. 3, no. 2, 2019, Art. no. 31.

[6] N. Huber and J. Heerens, “On the effect of a general residual stress state on indentation and hardness testing,” Acta Materialia, vol. 56, pp. 6205–6213, 2008.

[7] M. Bambach, B. T. Araghi, and G. Hirt, “Strategies to improve the geometric accuracy in asymmetric single point incremental forming,” Production Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 145–156, 2009.

[8] A. Subrahmanyam, R. Lingam, K. Hayakawa, S. Tanaka, and N. V. Reddy, “Experimental and numerical investigation of residual stresses in incremental forming,” Materials Transactions, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 228–233, 2020.

[9] N. Baak, M. Garlich, A. Schmiedt, M. Bambach, and F. Walther, “Characterization of residual stresses in austenitic disc springs induced by martensite formation during incremental forming using micromagnetic methods,” Materials Testing, vol. 59, pp. 309–314, 2017.

[10] H. K. Nirala and A. Agrawal, “Reprint of: Residual stress inclusion in the incrementally formed geometry using Fractal Geometry based incremental tool path,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 287, 2021, Art. no. 116623.

[11] S. Walzer, M. Liewald, N. Simon, J. Gibmeier, H. Erdle, and T. Böhlke, “Improvement of sheet metal properties by inducing residual stresses into sheet metal components by embossing and reforming,” Applied Science and Engineering Progress, vol. 15, no. 1, 2022, Art. no. 5414, doi: 10.14416/j.asep.2021.09.006.

[12] J. Slota, B. Krasowski, A. Kubit, T. Trzepiecinski, W. Bochnowski, K. Dudek, and M. Neslušan, “Residual stresses and surface roughness analysis of truncated cones of steel sheet made by single point incremental forming,” Metals, vol. 10, no. 2, 2020, Art. no. 237.

[13] S. Tanaka, T. Nakamura, K. Hayakawa, H. Nakamura, and K. Motomura, “Residual stress in sheet metal parts made by incremental forming process,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 908, no. 1, pp. 775–780, 2007, Art. no. 775.

[14] F. Maaß, M. Hahn, M. Dobecki, E. Thannhäuser, A. E. Tekkaya, and W. Reimers, “Influence of tool path strategies on the residual stress development in single point incremental forming,” Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 29, pp. 53–58, 2019.

[15] F. Maaß, M. Hahn, and A. E. Tekkaya, “Interaction of process parameters, forming mechanisms, and residual stresses in single point incremental forming,” Metals, vol. 10, no. 5, 2020, Art. no. 656.

[16] F. Maaß, S. Gies, M. Dobecki, K. Brömmelhoff, A. E. Tekkaya, and W. Reimers, “Analysis of residual stress state in sheet metal parts processed by single point incremental forming,” AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1960, no. 1, 2018, Art. no. 160017.

[17] M. Alinaghian, I. Alinaghian, and M. Honarpisheh, “Residual stress measurement of single point incremental formed Al/Cu bimetal using incremental hole-drilling method,” International Journal of Lightweight Materials and Manufacture, vol. 2, pp. 131–139, 2019.

[18] R. Bahloul, H. Arfa, and H. BelHadjSalah, “A study on optimal design of process parameters in single point incremental forming of sheet metal by combining Box–Behnken design of experiments, response surface methods and genetic algorithms,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 74, pp. 163–185, 2014.

[19] R. B. Azhiri, F. Rahimidehgolan, F. Javidpour, R. M. Tekiyeh, S. M. Moussavifard, and A. S. Bideskan, “Optimization of single point incremental forming process using ball nose tool,” Experimental Techniques, vol. 44, pp. 75–84, 2020.

[20] A. Mulay, B. S. Ben, S. Ismail, and A. Kocanda, “Prediction of average surface roughness and formability in single point incremental forming using artificial neural network,” Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 19, pp. 1135– 1149, 2019.

[21] M. Sbayti, R. Bahloul, H. BelHadjSalah, and F. Zemzemi, “Optimization techniques applied to single point incremental forming process for biomedical application,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 95, pp. 1789–1804, 2018.

[22] S. M. Najm and I. Paniti, “Predict the effects of forming tool characteristics on surface roughness of aluminum foil components formed by SPIF using ANN and SVR,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 22, pp. 13–26, 2021.

[23] Z. Liu, B. Li, Y. L. Daniel, and P. Meehan, “Taguchi optimization of process parameters for forming time in incremental sheet forming process,” Materials Science Forum, vol. 773, pp. 137–143, 2014.

[24] P. Chinnaiyan and A. K. Jeevanantham, “Multiobjective optimization of single point incremental sheet forming of AA5052 using Taguchi based grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, vol. 15, pp. 2309–2316, 2014.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2022.06.003


  • There are currently no refbacks.