Page Header

Applications and Future Aspects of 4D Printed Biopolymeric Scaffold Materials in Tissue Engineering: A Systematic Literature Review

Mugilan Thanigachalam, Balaji Ayyanar Chinnappan, Prathip Raghavan


The emergence of smart materials (stimulus-responsive materials) and cells enables 4D printing to enhance printed structures dynamically. By undergoing controlled morphological changes, engineered tissues may be made using these dynamic scaffolds. This article provides an overview of the use of stimuli-responsive biomaterials in tissue engineering and several 4D printing methodologies based on the functional change of printed objects. This review also goes through the existing and future prospects for using 4D printing in bone tissue engineering and the limitations in this field. Using a variety of stimuli-responsive biomaterials and 4D printing techniques, the form or function of these objects might evolve. These novel technologies have the potential to meet unmet medical needs, as shown by a recent review that summarised the use of 4D printing in bone tissue engineering. This current review is about the potential of this cutting-edge technology for tissue engineering in the biomedical area by delving further into the ongoing conversations regarding future issues and perspectives.


[1] X. Kuang, D. J. Roach, J. Wu, C. M. Hamel, Z. Ding, T. Wang, M. L. Dunn, and H. J. Qi, “Advances in 4D printing: Materials and applications,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 29, no. 2, 2019, Art. no. 1805290.

[2] F. Momeni, X. Liu, and J. Ni, “A review of 4D printing,” Materials and Design, vol. 122, pp. 42–79, 2017.

[3] Z. X. Khoo, J. E. M. Teoh, Y. Liu, C. K. Chua, S. Yang, J. An, K. F. Leong, and W. Y. Yeong, “3D printing of smart materials: A review on recent progresses in 4D printing,” Virtual and Physical Prototyping, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 103–122, 2015.

[4] A. S. Gladman, E. A. Matsumoto, R. G. Nuzzo, L. Mahadevan, and J. A. Lewis, “Biomimetic 4D printing,” Nature Materials, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 413–418, 2016.

[5] J.-J. Wu, L.-M. Huang, Q. Zhao, and T. Xie, “4D printing: History and recent progress,” Chinese Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 563–575, 2018.

[6] H. Chu, W. Yang, L. Sun, S. Cai, R. Yang, W. Liang, H. Yu, and L. Liu, “4D printing: A review on recent progresses,” Micromachines, vol. 11, no. 9, 2020, Art. no. 796.

[7] Z. Ding, C. Yuan, X. Peng, T. Wang, H. J. Qi, and M. L. Dunn, “Direct 4D printing via active composite materials,” Science Advances, vol. 3, no. 4, 2017, Art. no. e1602890.

[8] S. Shakibania, L. Ghazanfari, M. Raeeszadeh- Sarmazdeh, and M. Khakbiz, “Medical application of biomimetic 4D printing,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 521–534, 2021.

[9] P. Pourmasoumi, A. Moghaddam, S. N. Mahand, F. Heidari, Z. S. Moghaddam, M. Arjmand, I. Kühnert, B. Kruppke, H.-P. Wiesmann, and H. A. Khonakdar, “A review on the recent progress, opportunities, and challenges of 4D printing and bioprinting in regenerative medicine,” Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 108–146, 2022.

[10] C. A. Spiegel, M. Hippler, A. Münchinger, M. Bastmeyer, C. Barner‐Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “4D printing at the microscale,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 30, no. 26, 2020, Art. no. 1907615.

[11] D.-G. Shin, T.-H. Kim, and D.-E. Kim, “Review of 4D printing materials and their properties,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 349–357, 2017.

[12] A. Ahmed, S. Arya, V. Gupta, H. Furukawa, and A. Khosla, “4D printing: Fundamentals, materials, applications and challenges,” Polymer, vol. 228, 2021, Art. no. 123926.

[13] M. A. Naniz, M. Askari, A. Zolfagharian, M. A. Naniz, and M. Bodaghi, “4D printing: A cutting edge platform for biomedical applications,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 17, no. 6, 2022, Art. no. 062001.

[14] B. Gao, Q. Yang, X. Zhao, G. Jin, Y. Ma, and F. Xu, “4D bioprinting for biomedical applications,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 746–756, 2016.

[15] Q. Yang, B. Gao, and F. Xu, “Recent advances in 4D bioprinting,” Biotechnology Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, 2020, Art. no. 1900086.

[16] X. Han, S. Chang, M. Zhang, X. Bian, C. Li, and D. Li, “Advances of hydrogel-based bioprinting for cartilage tissue engineering,” Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, vol. 9, 2021, doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2021.746564.

[17] Z. U. Arif, M. Y. Khalid, A. Zolfagharian, and M. Bodaghi, “4D bioprinting of smart polymers for biomedical applications: Recent progress, challenges, and future perspectives,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 179, Oct. 2022, Art. no. 105374.

[18] Z. U. Arif, M. Y. Khalid, R. Noroozi, A. Sadeghianmaryan, M. Jalalvand, and M. Hossain, “Recent advances in 3D-printed polylactide and polycaprolactone-based biomaterials for tissue engineering applications,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 218, pp. 930– 968, Oct. 2022.

[19] E. Pei and G. H. Loh, “Technological considerations for 4D printing: An overview,” Progress in Additive Manufacturing, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 95– 107, 2018.

[20] Q. Ge, C. K. Dunn, H. J. Qi, and M. L. Dunn, “Active origami by 4D printing,” Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 23, no. 9, 2014, Art. no. 094007.

[21] D. E. Clarke, C. D. Parmenter, and O. A. Scherman, “Tunable pentapeptide self‐assembled β‐sheet hydrogels,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 57, no. 26, pp. 7709–7713, 2018.

[22] H. Wei, Q. Zhang, Y. Yao, L. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. Leng, “Direct-write fabrication of 4D active shape-changing structures based on a shape memory polymer and its nanocomposite,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 876–883, 2017.

[23] D. R. Griffin and A. M. Kasko, “Photodegradable macromers and hydrogels for live cell encapsulation and release,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 134, no. 31, pp. 13103–13107, 2012.

[24] H. Wei, S.-X. Cheng, X.-Z. Zhang, and R.-X. Zhuo, “Thermo-sensitive polymeric micelles based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) as drug carriers,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 893–910, 2009.

[25] M. Jamal, S. S. Kadam, R. Xiao, F. Jivan, T. M. Onn, R. Fernandes, T. D. Nguyen, and D. H. Gracias, “Bio‐origami hydrogel scaffolds composed of photocrosslinked PEG bilayers,”Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1142–1150, 2013.

[26] K. Zhang, A. Geissler, M. Standhardt, S. Mehlhase, M. Gallei, L. Chen, and C. M. Thiele, “Moistureresponsive films of cellulose stearoyl esters showing reversible shape transitions,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2015.

[27] A. Tocchio, N. G. Durmus, K. Sridhar, V. Mani, B. Coskun, R. E. Assal, and U. Demirci, “Magnetically guided self‐assembly and coding of 3D living architectures,” Advanced Materials, vol. 30, no. 4, 2018, Art. no. 1705034.

[28] P. J. Skrzeszewska, L. N. Jong, F. A. de Wolf, M. A. C. Stuart, and J. van der Gucht, “Shape-memory effects in biopolymer networks with collagen-like transient nodes,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 2285– 2292, 2011.

[29] R. A. Green, S. Baek, L. A. Poole-Warren, and P. J. Martens, “Conducting polymer-hydrogels for medical electrode applications,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 11, no. 1, 2010, Art. no. 014107.

[30] Z. Zhang, K. G. Demir, and G. X. Gu, “Developments in 4D-printing: A review on current smart materials, technologies, and applications, ” International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 205–224, 2019.

[31] M. Champeau, D. A. Heinze, T. N. Viana, E. R. de Souza, A. C. Chinellato, and S. Titotto, “4D printing of hydrogels: A review,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 30, no. 31, 2020, Art. no. 1910606.

[32] M. Rafiee, R. D. Farahani, and D. Therriault, “Multi‐material 3D and 4D printing: A survey,” Advanced Science, vol. 7, no. 12, 2020, Art. no. 1902307.

[33] B. A. Chinnappan, M. Krishnaswamy, M. Thanigachalam, H. Xu, S. I. Khan, and M. E. Hoque, “Fabrication, characterization and in vitro assessment of laevistrombus canariumderived hydroxyapatite particulate-filled polymer composite for implant applications,” Polymers, vol. 14, no. 5, 2022, Art. no. 872.

[34] P. Fu, H. Li, J. Gong, Z. Fan, A. T. Smith, K. Shen, T. O. Khalfalla, H. Huang, X. Qian, and J. R. McCutcheon, “4D printing of polymeric materials: Techniques, materials, and prospects,” Progress in Polymer Science, 2022, doi: 10.1016/ j.progpolymsci.2022.101506.

[35] X. Teng, M. Zhang, and A. S. Mujumdar, “4D printing: Recent advances and proposals in the food sector,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 110, pp. 349–363, 2021.

[36] D. Khorsandi, A. Fahimipour, P. Abasian, S. S. Saber, M. Seyedi, S. Ghanavati, A. Ahmad, A. A. De Stephanis, F. Taghavinezhaddilami, and A. Leonova, “3D and 4D printing in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery: Printing techniques, materials, and applications,” Acta biomaterialia, vol. 122, pp. 26–49, 2021.

[37] S. Mallakpour, F. Tabesh, and C. M. Hussain, “3D and 4D printing: From innovation to evolution,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 294, 2021, Art. no. 102482.

[38] C. M. González-Henríquez, M. A. Sarabia-Vallejos, and J. Rodriguez-Hernandez, “Polymers for additive manufacturing and 4D-printing: Materials, methodologies, and biomedical applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 94, no. pp. 57–116, 2019.

[39] Y. S. Alshebly, M. Nafea, M. S. M. Ali, and H. A. Almurib, “Review on recent advances in 4D printing of shape memory polymers,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 159, 2021, Art. no. 110708.

[40] Y. Wang, H. Cui, T. Esworthy, D. Mei, Y. Wang, and L. G. Zhang, “Emerging 4D printing strategies for next‐generation tissue regeneration and medical devices,” Advanced Materials, vol. 34, no. 20, 2022, Art. no. 2109198.

[41] M. Manjaiah, K. Raghavendra, N. Balashanmugam, and J. P. J. Davim, Additive Manufacturing: A Tool for Industrial Revolution 4.0. Sawston, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2021.

[42] Z. Wan, P. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Lv, and Y. Zhou, “Four-dimensional bioprinting: Current developments and applications in bone tissue engineering,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 101, pp. 26–42, 2020.

[43] C. B. Ayyanar, M. D. Dharshinii, K. Marimuthu, S. Akhil, T. Mugilan, C. Bharathiraj, S. M. Rangappa, A. Khan, and S. Siengchin, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of natural fillers loaded HDPE composites for domestic applications,” Polymer Composites, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 5168– 5178, 2022.

[44] A. Haleem, M. Javaid, R. P. Singh, and R. Suman, “Significant roles of 4D printing using smart materials in the field of manufacturing,” Advanced Industrial and Engineering Polymer Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 301–311, 2021.

[45] H. A. Alshahrani, “Review of 4D printing materials and reinforced composites: Behaviors, applications and challenges,” Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 167–185, 2021.

[46] S. Mallakpour, F. Tabesh, and C. M. Hussain, “A new trend of using poly (vinyl alcohol) in 3D and 4D printing technologies: Process and applications,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 301, Mar. 2022, Art. no. 102605.

[47] M. Barletta, A. Gisario, and M. Mehrpouya, “4D printing of shape memory polylactic acid (PLA) components: Investigating the role of the operational parameters in fused deposition modelling (FDM),” Journal of Manufacturing Processes, vol. 61, pp. 473–480, 2021.

[48] C. Gauss, K. L. Pickering, and L. P. Muthe, “The use of cellulose in bio-derived formulations for 3D/4D printing: A review,” Composites Part C: Open Access, vol. 4, 2021, Art. no. 100113.

[49] B. Subeshan, Y. Baddam, and E. Asmatulu, “Current progress of 4D-printing technology,” Progress in Additive Manufacturing, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 495–516, 2021.

[50] M. C. Biswas, S. Chakraborty, A. Bhattacharjee, and Z. Mohammed, “4D printing of shape memory materials for textiles: Mechanism, mathematical modeling, and challenges,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 31, no. 19, 2021, Art. no. 2100257.

[51] X. Chen, S. Han, W. Wu, Z. Wu, Y. Yuan, J. Wu, and C. Liu, “Harnessing 4D printing bioscaffolds for advanced orthopedics,” Small, vol. 18, no. 36, 2022, Art. no. 2106824.

[52] S. Saska, L. Pilatti, A. Blay, and J. A. Shibli, “Bioresorbable polymers: Advanced materials and 4D printing for tissue engineering,” Polymers, vol. 13, no. 4, 2021, Art. no. 563.

[53] H. Hwangbo, H. Lee, E. J. Roh, W. Kim, H. P. Joshi, S. Y. Kwon, U. Y. Choi, I.-B. Han, and G. H. Kim, “Bone tissue engineering via application of a collagen/hydroxyapatite 4D-printed biomimetic scaffold for spinal fusion,” Applied Physics Reviews, vol. 8, no. 2, 2021, Art. no. 021403.

[54] G. Kumari, K. Abhishek, S. Singh, A. Hussain, M. A. Altamimi, H. Madhyastha, T. J. Webster, and A. Dev, “A voyage from 3D to 4D printing in nanomedicine and healthcare: Part II,” Nanomedicine, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 255–270, 2022.

[55] I. Sahafnejad-Mohammadi, M. Karamimoghadam, A. Zolfagharian, M. Akrami, and M. Bodaghi, “4D printing technology in medical engineering: A narrative review,” Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1–26, 2022.

[56] M. Qu, C. Wang, X. Zhou, A. Libanori, X. Jiang, W. Xu, S. Zhu, Q. Chen, W. Sun, and A. Khademhosseini, “Multi‐dimensional printing for bone tissue engineering,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 10, no. 11, 2021, Art. no. 2001986.

[57] W. Zhou, Z. Qiao, E. N. Zare, J. Huang, X. Zheng, X. Sun, M. Shao, H. Wang, X. Wang, and D. Chen, “4D-printed dynamic materials in biomedical applications: Chemistry, challenges, and their future perspectives in the clinical sector,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 63, no. 15, pp. 8003–8024, 2020.

[58] C. Cui, D.-O. Kim, M. Y. Pack, B. Han, L. Han, Y. Sun, and L.-H. Han, “4D printing of self-folding and cell-encapsulating 3D microstructures as scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications,” Biofabrication, vol. 12, no. 4, 2020, Art. no. 045018.

[59] H. Wu, X. Zhang, Z. Ma, C. Zhang, J. Ai, P. Chen, C. Yan, B. Su, and Y. Shi, “A material combination concept to realize 4D printed products with newly emerging property/functionality,” Advanced Science, vol. 7, no. 9, 2020, Art. no. 1903208.

[60] K. Osouli-Bostanabad, T. Masalehdan, R. M. Kapsa, A. Quigley, A. Lalatsa, K. F. Bruggeman, S. J. Franks, R. J. Williams, and D. R. Nisbet, “Traction of 3D and 4D printing in the healthcare industry: From drug delivery and analysis to regenerative medicine,” ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 2764–2797, 2022.

[61] C. Wang, H. Yue, J. Liu, Q. Zhao, Z. He, K. Li, B. Lu, W. Huang, Y. Wei, and Y. Tang, “Advanced reconfigurable scaffolds fabricated by 4D printing for treating critical-size bone defects of irregular shapes,” Biofabrication, vol. 12, no. 4, 2020, Art. no. 045025.

[62] M. Javaid, A. Haleem, R. P. Singh, S. Rab, R. Suman, and L. Kumar, “Significance of 4D printing for dentistry: Materials, process, and potentials,” Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 388–395, 2022.

[63] C. Lin, L. Liu, Y. Liu, and J. Leng, “4D printing of shape memory polybutylene succinate/polylactic acid (PBS/PLA) and its potential applications,” Composite Structures, vol. 279, 2022, Art. no. 114729.

[64] Y. Wang, H. Cui, Y. Wang, C. Xu, T. J. Esworthy, S. Y. Hann, M. Boehm, Y.-L. Shen, D. Mei, and L. G. Zhang, “4D printed cardiac construct with aligned myofibers and adjustable curvature for myocardial regeneration,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 12746– 12758, 2021.

[65] D. Han, Z. Lu, S. A. Chester, and H. Lee, “Micro 3D printing of a temperature-responsive hydrogel using projection micro-stereolithography,” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2018.

[66] V. Serpooshan, J. B. Hu, O. Chirikian, D. A. Hu, M. Mahmoudi, and S. M. Wu, “4D printing of actuating cardiac tissue,” 3D Printing Applications in Cardiovascular Medicine, pp. 153–162, 2018 doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803917-5.00008-0.

[67] M. Bodaghi, A. Damanpack, and W. Liao, “Adaptive metamaterials by functionally graded 4D printing,” Materials & Design, vol. 135, pp. 26–36, 2017.

[68] M.-Y. Shie, Y.-F. Shen, S. D. Astuti, A. K.-X. Lee, S.-H. Lin, N. L. B. Dwijaksara, and Y.-W. Chen, “Review of polymeric materials in 4D printing biomedical applications,” Polymers, vol. 11, no. 11, 2019, Art. no. 1864.

[69] G. Villar, A. D. Graham, and H. Bayley, “A tissue-like printed material,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6128, pp. 48–52, 2013.

[70] A. Anandhapadman, A. Venkateswaran, H. Jayaraman, and N. V. Ghone, “Advances in 3D printing of composite scaffolds for the repairment of bone tissue associated defects,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 38, no. 3, 2022, Art. no. e3234.

[71] S. Ma, Y. Zhang, M. Wang, Y. Liang, L. Ren, and L. Ren, “Recent progress in 4D printing of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials,” Science China Technological Sciences, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 532–544, 2020.

[72] A. Zolfagharian, A. Kaynak, M. Bodaghi, A. Z. Kouzani, S. Gharaie, and S. Nahavandi, “Controlbased 4D printing: Adaptive 4D-printed systems,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 9, 2020, Art. no. 3020.

[73] H. P. Dang, T. Shabab, A. Shafiee, Q. C. Peiffer, K. Fox, N. Tran, T. R. Dargaville, D. W. Hutmacher, and P. A. Tran, “3D printed dual macro-, microscale porous network as a tissue engineering scaffold with drug delivering function,” Biofabrication, vol. 11, no. 3, 2019, Art. no. 035014.

[74] W. Zhang, H. Wang, H. Wang, J. Y. E. Chan, H. Liu, B. Zhang, Y.-F. Zhang, K. Agarwal, X. Yang, and A. S. Ranganath, “Structural multi-colour invisible inks with submicron 4D printing of shape memory polymers,” Nature Communications, vol. 12, no. 1, 2021, Art. no. 112.

[75] A. Rayate and P. K. Jain, “A review on 4D printing material composites and their applications,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 20474–20484, 2018.

[76] S. Miao, H. Cui, M. Nowicki, S.-j. Lee, J. Almeida, X. Zhou, W. Zhu, X. Yao, F. Masood, and M. W. Plesniak, “Photolithographicstereolithographic- tandem fabrication of 4D smart scaffolds for improved stem cell cardiomyogenic differentiation,” Biofabrication, vol. 10, no. 3, 2018, Art. no. 035007.

[77] S. Ramesh, C. Usha, N. K. Naulakha, C. Adithyakumar, and M. L. K. Reddy, “Advancements in the research of 4D printing- A review,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 376, no. 1, 2018, Art. no. 012123.

[78] C. S. Ong, L. Nam, K. Ong, A. Krishnan, C. Y. Huang, T. Fukunishi, and N. Hibino, “3D and 4D bioprinting of the myocardium: Current approaches, challenges, and future prospects,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2018, 2018, Art. no. 6497242.

[79] T. J. Esworthy, S. Miao, S.-J. Lee, X. Zhou, H. Cui, Y. Y. Zuo, and L. G. Zhang, “Advanced 4D-bioprinting technologies for brain tissue modeling and study,” International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 177–204, 2019.

[80] M. Javaid and A. Haleem, “3D printed tissue and organ using additive manufacturing: An overview,” Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 586–594, 2020.

[81] M. P. Caputo, A. E. Berkowitz, A. Armstrong, P. Müllner, and C. V. Solomon, “4D printing of net shape parts made from Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloys,” Additive Manufacturing, vol. 21, pp. 579–588, May 2018.

[82] A. Nishiguchi, H. Zhang, S. Schweizerhof, M. F. Schulte, A. Mourran, and M. Möller, “4D printing of a light-driven soft actuator with programmed printing density,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 12176–12185, 2020.

[83] M. Y. Khalid, Z. U. Arif, and W. Ahmed, “4D printing: Technological and manufacturing renaissance,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 8, 2022, Art. no. 2200003.

[84] F. Demoly, M. L. Dunn, K. L. Wood, H. J. Qi, and J.-C. André, “The status, barriers, challenges, and future in design for 4D printing,” Materials & Design, vol. 212, 2021, Art. no. 110193.

[85] S. K. Leist and J. Zhou, “Current status of 4D printing technology and the potential of light-reactive smart materials as 4D printable materials,” Virtual and Physical Prototyping, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 249–262, 2016.

[86] N. Ashammakhi, S. Ahadian, F. Zengjie, K. Suthiwanich, F. Lorestani, G. Orive, S. Ostrovidov, and A. Khademhosseini, “Advances and future perspectives in 4D bioprinting,” Biotechnology Journal, vol. 13, no. 12, 2018, Art. no. 1800148.

[87] I. Lukin, S. Musquiz, I. Erezuma, T. H. Al-Tel, N. Golafshan, A. Dolatshahi-Pirouz, and G. Orive, “Can 4D bioprinting revolutionize drug development?,” Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 953–956, 2019.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.14416/j.asep.2023.01.007


  • There are currently no refbacks.