Influences of Aging and Inflation Pressure on Stiffness and Absorbed Energy of a Passenger Car Radial Tire
The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of aging and inflation pressure on the stiffness and absorbed energy of radial tires. By quasi-static compression test, new and 50,000-km used tires were determined for acting force and corresponding displacement. Between the 172.4 kPa and 241.3 kPa inflation pressure range for the new tire, the load was linearly increased with displacement. The absorbed energy was non-linear increasing with the displacement. The trend of the accumulative absorbed energy was increased when inflated the tire pressure. For both new and used tires, the stiffness and the absorbed energy were linearly increasing with the inflation pressure. The used tire was harder than the new tire observed by the higher tire stiffness and can be absorbed greater energy. At the rated inflation pressure of 220.6 kPa, after 50,000 km usage, the tire was intensified by 2.62% in terms of stiffness and by 2.22% in terms of energy absorbed. On average, over the inflation pressure in the range of 172.4 kPa to 241.3 kPa, the stiffness and absorbed energy were by 3.22 % and 2.98 % increase for the aging tire compared to the base new tire.
Keywords: car; energy; passenger; stiffness; suspension; tire
 C. Becker and S. Els, Motion resistance measurements on large lug tyres, Journal of Terramechanics, 2020, 88, 17-27.
 E.S. Rødland, O.C. Lind, M. Reid, L.S. Heier, E. Skogsberg, B. Snilsberg, D. Gryteselv and S. Meland, Characterization of tire and road wear microplastic particle contamination in a road tunnel: From surface to release, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2022, 435, 129032.
 T.V. Glazkov and S.A. Reshmin, A nonlinear tire model to describe an unwanted flat vibrations of the wheels, IFAC-PapersOnLine, 2019, 52(16), 268-273.
 Z. Liu and Q. Gao, Development of a flexible belt on an elastic multi-stiffness foundation tire model for a heavy load radial tire with a large section ratio, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2019, 123, 43-67.
 F. Braghin, F. Cheli and E. Sabbioni, Identification of tire model parameters through full vehicle experimental tests, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 2011, 133(3), 031006.
 H.-R.B. Bosch, H.A. Hamersma and P.S. Els, Parameterisation, validation and implementation of an all-terrain SUV FTire tyre model, Journal of Terramechanics, 2016, 67, 11-23.
 Z. Yu, Y. Liu, B. Tinsley and A.A. Shabana, Integration of geometry and analysis for vehicle system applications: Continuum-based leaf spring and tire assembly, Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics, 2016, 11(3), 031011.
 S.J. Kim, K.-S. Kim and Y.-S. Yoon, Development of a tire model based on an analysis of tire strain obtained by an intelligent tire system, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 2015, 16(5), 865-875.
 X. Hu, X. Liu, X. Wan, Y. Shan and J. Yi, Experimental analysis of sound field in the tire cavity arising from the acoustic cavity resonance, Applied Acoustics, 2020, 161, 107172.
 A. Del Pizzo, L. Teti, A. Moro, F. Bianco, L. Fredianelli and G. Licitra, Influence of texture on tyre road noise spectra in rubberized pavements, Applied Acoustics, 2020, 159, 107080.
 J. Hu, S, Rakheja and Y. Zhang, Tire-road friction coefficient estimation under constant vehicle speed control, IFAC- PapersOnLine, 2019, 52(8), 136-141.
 W. Zhao, C. Zhang and J. Zhang, Continuous measurement of tire deformation using long-gauge strain sensors, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2020, 142, 106782.
 R. Wang and J. Wang, Tire-road friction coefficient and tire cornering stiffness estimation based on longitudinal tire force difference generation, Control Engineering Practice, 2013, 21(1), 65-75.
 F. Li, F. Liu, J. Liu, Y. Gao, Y. Lu, J. Chen, H. Yang and L. Zhang, Thermo-mechanical coupling analysis of transient temperature and rolling resistance for solid rubber tire: Numerical simulation and experimental verification, Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 167, 404-410.
 Y. Gong, L. Zhao, J. Zhang and N. Hu, A novel model for determining the fatigue delamination resistance in composite laminates from a viewpoint of energy, Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 167, 489-496.
 J. Lieh, Tire damping effect on ride quality of vehicles with active control suspensions, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 2009, 131(3), 031011.
 M.A.A. Abdelkareem, L. Xu, M.K.A. Ali, A. Elagouz, J. Mi, S. Guo, Y. Liu and L. Zuo, Vibration energy harvesting in automotive suspension system: A detailed Review, Applied Energy, 2018, 229, 672-699.
 H. Roshani, S. Dessouky, A. Montoya and A.T. Papagiannakis, Energy harvesting from asphalt pavement roadways vehicle-induced stresses: A feasibility study, Applied Energy, 2016, 182, 210-218.
 Y. Zhang, H. Chen, K. Guo, X. Zhang and S.E. Li, Electro-hydraulic damper for energy harvesting suspension: Modeling, prototyping and experimental validation, Applied Energy, 2017, 199, 1-12.
 R. Zhang, X. Wang, E.A. Shami, S. John, L. Zuo and C.H. Wang, A novel indirect-drive regenerative shock absorber for energy harvesting and comparison with a conventional direct-drive regenerative shock absorber, Applied Energy, 2018, 229, 111-127.
 D. Maurya, P. Kumar, S. Khaleghian, R. Sriramdas, M.G. Kang, R.A. Kishore, V. Kumar, H.-C. Songe, J.-M. Park, S. Taherif and S. Priya, Energy harvesting and strain sensing in smart tire for next generation autonomous vehicles, Applied Energy, 2018, 232, 312-322.
 R.K. Sleeper and R.C. Dreher, Tire stiffness and damping determined from static and free-vibration tests, NASA Technical Paper 1671, 1980.
 P.A. Misiewicz, T.E. Richards, K. Blackburn and R.J. Godwin, Comparison of methods for estimating the carcass stiffness of agricultural tyres on hard surfaces, Biosystems Engineering, 2016, 147, 183-192.
 Z. Liu and Q. Gao, Analytical investigation on tire dynamics by rigid–elastic coupled tire model with nonlinear sidewall stiffness, Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 2018, 40(80), 1-14.
 Z. Liu, Q. Gao and H. Niu, In-plane flexible beam on elastic foundation with combined sidewall stiffness tire model for heavy-loaded off-road tire, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 2019, 141(6), 061006.
 Y. Xu, M. Freney, R. Hassanli, Y. Zhuge, Md.M. Rahman and Md.R. Karim, Experimental study on the structural performance of full-scale tyre wall for residential housing applications, Engineering Structures, 2022, 259, 114181.
 Y. Xu and M. Ahmadian, Improving the capacity of tire normal force via variable stiffness and damping suspension system, Journal of Terramechanics, 2013, 50, 121-132.
 A. Soltani, A. Goodarzi, M.H. Shojaeefard and K. Saeedi, Optimizing tire vertical stiffness based on ride, handling, performance, and fuel consumption criteria, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 2015, 137(12), 121004.
 Y.F. Lian, Y. Zhao, L.L. Hu and Y.T. Tian, Cornering stiffness and sideslip angle estimation based on simplified lateral dynamic models for four-in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles with lateral tire force information, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 2015, 16(4), 669-683.
 J. Ni, J. Hu and C. Xiang, Relaxed static stability based on tyre cornering stiffness estimation for all-wheel-drive electric vehicle, Control Engineering Practice, 2017, 64, 102-110.
 Y.-W. Kim, Micromechanically consistent calculation of rotational stiffness of radial tire, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2009, 23, 1294-1305.
 Y. Tao, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, C.A. Stevens, E. Bilotti, T. Peijs and J.J.C. Busfielda, Smart cord-rubber composites with integrated sensing capabilities by localised carbon nanotubes using a simple swelling and infusion method, Composites Science and Technology, 2018, 167, 24-31.
 J.-J. Bae, Y. You, J.B. Suh and N. Kang, Calculation of the structural stiffeness of run-flat and regular tires by considering strain energy, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 2019, 20(5), 979-987.
 J. Li, X. Zhao, Z. Zhang, Y. Xian, Y. Lin, X. Ji, Y. Lu and L. Zhang, Construction of interconnected Al2O3 doped rGO network in natural rubber nanocomposites to achieve significant thermal conductivity and mechanical strength enhancement, Composites Science and Technology, 2020, 186, 107930.
 M.N. Shenvi, H. Mousavi and C. Sandu, Tread rubber compound effect in winter tires: Benchmarking ATIIM 2.0 with classical models, Journal of Terramechanics, 2022, 101, 43-58.
- There are currently no refbacks.